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IndIGO Ind ian I nitiative in G ravitational-wave O bservations Detecting Einstein’s Elusive Waves Opening a New Window to the Universe Inaugurating Gravitational wave Astronomy. LIGO-India: An Indo-US joint mega-project concept proposal Bala Iyer , RRI, Bangalore
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IndIGOIndian Initiative in Gravitational-wave ObservationsDetecting Einstein’s Elusive WavesOpening a New Window to the Universe Inaugurating Gravitational wave Astronomy LIGO-India: An Indo-US joint mega-project concept proposal BalaIyer, RRI, Bangalore Chair, IndIGO Consortium Council On behalf of the IndIGO Consortium www.gw-indigo.org Version: pI_v3 Jun 22, 2011 : BI
Participants in the Meeting 23 June 2011, RRI 1. K.R. Kasturirangan (Member,PC) • A.K. Varma (PC) • R. Koul (DAE representative) • Hari Gopal (DST representative) • N. Kumar (RRI) • Ajit Kembhavi (Director IUCAA, Member NSC) 7. Bala Iyer (RRI, Chair IndIGO Council) • Ravi Subrahmanyan (Director RRI) 9. Sanjeev Dhurandhar (IUCAA, IndIGO Council) 11. TarunSouradeep (IUCAA, IndIGO Council) 12. C.S. Unnikrishnan (TIFR, IndIGO Council) 13. A.N. Ramprakash (IUCAA) 14. P. Sreekumar (ISRO, PMC) 15. S.K. Shukla (RRCAT) 16. Sendhil Raja (RRCAT) KailashRustagi (NSC), P.K. Kaw (NSC), D.D. Bhawalkar (NSC) G. Srinivasan (NSC) P. Balram (Director, IISc) Could not attend
1990+ : IUCAA, RRCAT Proposal to set up a GW Prototype and move to a large GW detector • 1995: UWA, RRCAT,..Indo-Australia proposal on upgrading Gingin prototype IndIGO Consortium – Highlights • 2009: AISTF-DST: BRI (RRI), SVD(IUCAA),CSU(TIFR),DB(UVA).. Establishing Australia-India collaboration in GW Astronomy • IndIGO Consortium: Reunion meeting IUCAA • GW Astronomy Roadmap for India; • 2009-2011: Meetings at Kochi, Pune, Shanghai, Perth, Delhi to Define and Respond to the Global (GWIC) strategies for International GW Network. Bring together scattered Indian Experimental Expertise; Individuals & Institutions • March 2011: IndIGO-I Proposal: Participation in LIGO-Australia • May 2011+: LIGO-India • July 10 2011: IndIGO presentation for Gravitational Wave International Committee (GWIC) Membership
Multi-Institutional, Multi-disciplinary Consortium (2009) Nodal Institutions • CMI, Chennai • Delhi University • IISER Kolkata • IISER Trivandrum • IIT Madras (EE) • IIT Kanpur (EE) • IUCAA, Pune • RRCAT, Indore • TIFR, Mumbai • IPR, Bhatt • Others • RRI • JamiaMiliaIslamia • TezpurUniv
The IndIGO Consortium IndIGO Council Bala Iyer ( Chair) RRI, Bangalore Sanjeev Dhurandhar (Science) IUCAA, Pune C. S. Unnikrishnan (Experiment) TIFR, Mumbai Tarun Souradeep (Spokesperson) IUCAA, Pune Data Analysis & Theory Sanjeev Dhurandhar IUCAA Bala Iyer RRI Tarun Souradeep IUCAA Anand Sengupta Delhi University Archana Pai IISER, Thiruvananthapuram Sanjit Mitra JPL , IUCAA K G Arun Chennai Math. Inst., Chennai Rajesh Nayak IISER, Kolkata A. Gopakumar TIFR, Mumbai T R Seshadri Delhi University Patrick Dasgupta Delhi University Sanjay Jhingan Jamila Milia Islamia, Delhi L. Sriramkumar, Phys., IIT M Bhim P. Sarma Tezpur Univ . Sanjay Sahay BITS, Goa P Ajith Caltech , USA Sukanta Bose, Wash. U., USA B. S. Sathyaprakash Cardiff University, UK Soumya Mohanty UTB, Brownsville , USA Badri Krishnan Max Planck AEI, Germany Instrumentation & Experiment C. S. Unnikrishnan TIFR, Mumbai G Rajalakshmi TIFR, Mumbai P.K. Gupta RRCAT, Indore Sendhil Raja RRCAT, Indore S.K. Shukla RRCAT, Indore Raja Rao ex RRCAT, Consultant Anil Prabhakar, EE, IIT M Pradeep Kumar, EE, IIT K Ajai Kumar IPR, Bhatt S.K. Bhatt IPR, Bhatt Ranjan Gupta IUCAA, Pune Bhal Chandra Joshi NCRA, Pune Rijuparna Chakraborty, Cote d’Azur, Grasse Rana Adhikari Caltech, USA Suresh Doravari Caltech, USA Biplab Bhawal (ex LIGO)
Plan Of Presentation • Part I – IndIGO to LIGO-India Bala Iyer (RRI), Chair IndIGO Consortium Council • Part 2 – LIGO-India Tarun Souradeep (IUCAA), Spokesperson, IndIGO Consortium Council
Beauty & Precision Einstein’s General theory of relativity is considered the most beautiful, as well as, successful theory of modern physics. It has matched all weak field experimental tests of Gravitation in the solar system remarkably well… TouTouches everyday Life too…GPS
Einstein’s Gravity predicts • Matter in motion Space-time ripples; fluctuations in space-time curvature that propagate as waves • Gravitational waves (GW) • In GR, as in EM, GW travel at the speed of light , are transverse and have two states of polarization. • GW are a major qualitatively unique prediction beyond Newton’s gravitation • Any theory of Gravitation consistent with SR will lead to GW…However, the properties of GW in different theories of gravity could be different …
1975 - Hulse and Taylor Binary Pulsar 1913+16 Companion NS PPulsar Nobel prize in 1993 !!! • Exquisite Lab for Tests of GR beyond static & weak Grav fields • High quality Pulsar Timing Data shows that after correcting for ALL known relativistic and astrophysical kinematic effects, the binary system is losing orbital energy • Period (measurable to 50ms accuracy) speeds up by 14s from 1975-94 as predicted by Einstein’s GR. • Binary pulsar systems emit gravitational waves Nobel Prize clinching evidence for Gravitational waves BUT still only Indirect evidence….
Astrophysical Sources for Terrestrial GW Detectors • Compact binary Coalescence: “chirps” • NS-NS, NS-BH, BH-BH • Supernovas or GRBs: “bursts” • GW signals observed in coincidence with EM or neutrino detectors • Pulsars in our galaxy: “periodic waves” • Rapidly rotating neutron stars • Modes of NS vibration • Cosmological: “stochastic background” ? • Probe back to the Planck time (10-43 s) • Probe phase transitions : window to force unification • Cosmological distribution of Primordial black holes Courtesy;: Stan Whitcomb
GW cause Oscillatory Tidal distortions on a ring of particles Suspended mirrors of an interferometer act as (freely falling) test masses (in hor pl for f>>f_pend),undergo tidal deformations leading to path differences Strain • Path difference due to tidal distortion phase difference • Change in Length manifests as a Change in Transmitted Light
Challenge of GW Detection A century of waiting • Two Fundamental Diffs between GR &EM - Weakness of Gravitation relative to EM (10^-39) -Massless Spin two nature of Gravitation vs Spin one of EM that forbids dipole radiation in GR • A NS-NS Binary in the Virgo cluster (20 Mpc) produces a strain of h ~ 10–22 – 10–21 . • For a 4 km detector one must effectively measure the miniscule displacement DL ~ 10-18 m • GW detection is about seeing the biggest things that ever happen by measuring the smallest changes that have ever been measured - Harry Collins.
Power Recycled end test mass with Fabry-Perot Arm Cavities Light bounces back and forth along arms about 100 times Light is “recycled” about 50 times beam splitter signal Detecting GW with Laser Interferometer LIGO Optical Configuration Michelson Interferometer input test mass Laser Difference in distance of Paths Interference of laser light at the detector (Photodiode) Courtesy: Stan Whitcomb
Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) USA, 4 km IndIGO - ACIGA meeting
Km-scale interferometric GW detectors LIGO and Virgo achieved their predicted design goals. Strain sensitivity <3x10-23/Sqrt(Hz) at 200 Hz. Experimental Milestone • Unprecedented sensitivity already allows • Upper Limits on GW from a variety of Astrophysical sources. • Improve on Spin down of Crab, Vela pulsars.. • Less than 2% available energy in Crab emitted as GW • Surpass Big Bang nucleosynthesis bound on Stochastic GW.. • Pre-dawn GW astronomy
Era of Advanced LIGO detectors: 2015 • 10x sensitivity • 10x dist reach • 1000 volume • >> 1000X event rate • (reach beyond • nearest super-clusters) • A Day of Advanced LIGO Observation >> • A year of Initial LIGO • observation
Mean Expected Annual Coalescence Event Rates In a 95% confidence interval, rates uncertain by 3 orders of magnitude NS-NS (0.4 - 400); NS-BH (0.2 - 300) ; BH-BH (2 - 4000) yr^-1 Based on Extrapolations from observed Binary Pulsars, Stellar birth rate estimates, Population Synthesis models. Rates quoted below are mean of the distribution.
From the GWIC Strategic Roadmap for GW Science with thirty year horizon (2007) Members: All major GW Detector groups • “… the first priority for ground-based gravitational wave detector development is to expand the network, adding further detectors with appropriately chosen intercontinental baselinesand orientations to maximize the ability to extract source information. ….Possibilities for a detector in India (IndIGO) are being studied..” • Aside: Invitation to Present on July 10 • the IndIGO case for GWIC Membership
GEO: 0.6km VIRGO: 3km LIGO-LHO: 2km+ 4km LCGT 3 km TAMA/CLIO LIGO-LLO: 4km LIGO-Australia? Global Network of GW Observatories improves… 1. Detection confidence 2. Duty cycle 3. Source direction 4. Polarization info. LIGO-India ?
LIGO-India: … the opportunity Science Gain from Strategic Geographical Relocation Source localization error Courtesy: S. Fairhurst Original Plan 2 +1 LIGO USA+ Virgo LIGO-India plan 1+1 LIGO USA+ Virgo+ LIGO-India LIGO-Aus plan 1+1 LIGO USA+ Virgo+ LIGO-Aus
Gravitational wave legacy in India • Indian contribution over two decades to the global effort for detecting GW internationally recognized on two significant fronts • Seminal contributions to source modeling at RRI [BalaIyer] and to GW data analysis at IUCAA [SanjeevDhurandhar] • RRI: Indo-French collaboration for two decades to compute high accuracy waveforms for in-spiraling compact binaries from which the GW templates used in LIGO and Virgo are constructed. • IUCAA: Designing efficient data analysis algorithms involving advanced mathematical concepts.. Notable contributions include the search for binary in-spirals, hierarchical methods, coherent search with a network of detectors and the radiometric search for stochastic gravitational waves. • IUCAA has collaborated with most international GW detector groups and has been a member of the LIGO Scientific Collaboration (LSC) for a decade. • IUCAA: TarunSouradeep with expertise in CMB data and Planck works to create a bridge between CMB and GW data analysis challenges.
Indian Gravitational wave community strengths • Very good students and post-docs produced who are… * Leaders in GW research abroad [Sathyaprakash, Bose, Mohanty] (3) *New faculty at premier institutions in India (6) [Gopakumar, ArchanaPai, Rajesh Nayak, AnandSengupta, K.G. Arun, SanjitMitra, P. Ajith?] • Strong Indian presence in GW Astronomy in the Global detector network where broad international collaboration is the norm relatively easy to get well trained researchers back • Close interactions with RanaAdhikari (Caltech), B.S. Sathyaprakash (Cardiff), Sukanta Bose ( WU, Pullman)???, SoumyaMohanty (UTB), Badri Krishnan ( AEI) … • International community very supportive as reflected in the International Advisory committee of IndIGO– Chair AbhayAshtekar • LIGO-Lab participates in IndIGO schools, commits to training and assisting in high end technology tasks related to GW • EGO has proposed to explore a MoU for GW collaboration: Roadmap Meeting on Nov 1-2 ,2011 at IUCAA
High precision Expertise in India • TIFR [C.S. Unnikrishnan] : High precision experiments and tests of weak forces • Test gravitation using most sensitive torsional balances and optical sensors. • Techniques related to precision laser spectroscopy, electronic locking, stabilization. • G.Rajalakshmi (IIA TIFR, 3m prototype); • Suresh Doravari (IIA LIGO, Caltech expt./AdvLIGO) • IITM [Anil Prabhakar] and IITK [Pradeep Kumar] (EE depts) • Photonics, Fiber optics and communications • Characterization and testing of optical components and instruments for use in India.. • RRCAT • [S.K. Shukla on INDUS, A.S. Raja Rao (exRRCAT)] --UHV • [Sendhil Raja, P.K. Gupta] - Optical system design, laser based instrumentation, optical metrology, Large aperture optics, diffractive optics, micro-optic system design. • [Rijuparna Chakraborty, France LIGO/EGO pdf?]Adaptive Optics….
Large experiment expertise in India • RRCAT…. • IPR[S.B. Bhatt on Aditya and Ajai Kumar] - UHV experience, Lasers… Support role in large volume UHV system, Control systems,…. • Groups at BARC and RRCAT : involved in LHC • providing a variety of components and subsystems like precision magnet positioning stand jacks, superconducting correcting magnets, quench heater protection supplies and skilled manpower support for magnetic tests and measurement and help in commissioning LHC subsystems. • Teams at Electronics & Instrumentation Groups at BARC (may be interested in large instrumentation projects in XII plan) • Groups at ISRO,…….
IndIGO: the goals & roles - I • Provide a common umbrella to initiate and expand GW related experimental activity and train new technically skilled manpower • 3m prototype detector in TIFR (funded) - Unnikrishnan • Laser expt. RRCAT, IIT M, IIT K - Sendhil Raja, Anil Prabhakar, Pradeep Kumar • Ultra High Vacuum & controls at RRCAT, IPR, BARC, ISRO, …. Shukla, Raja Rao, Bhatt, • UG summer internship at National & International GW labs & observatories. • Postgraduate IndIGO schools, specialized courses,… • Seek pan-Indian consolidated IndIGO membership in LIGO Scientific Collaboration (LSC) for participation in Advanced LIGO. • Create a Tier-2 data centre in IUCAA for LIGO Scientific Collaboration Deliverables and as a LSC Resource • Start collaborative work on joint projects under the IUSSTF Indo-US IUCAA-Caltech joint Centre at IUCAA
IndIGO 3m Prototype Detector Funded by TIFR Mumbai on campus (2010)PI: C. S.Unnikrishnan (Cost ~ INR 2.5cr) Technology Development and Training Platform
IndIGO: The Aspiration • Set up a major experimental initiative in GW astronomy • MOU with ACIGA to collaborate on GW Astronomy • Earlier Plan: Partner in LIGO-Australia • Advanced LIGO hardware for 1 detector to be shipped to Australia at the Gingin site, near Perth. NSF approval • Australia and International partners find funds (equiv to half the detector cost ~$140M and 10 year running cost ~$60M) within a year. • Indian partnership at 15% of Australian cost with full data rights. A diminishing possibility • Today: LIGO-India • Letter from LIGO Labs with offer of LIGO-India and Requirement Document • Advanced LIGO hardware for 1 detector to be shipped to India. • Detector: Two 4km arm length ultra high vacuum tubes in L configuration • India provides suitable site and infrastructure to house the GW observatory, Staffing for installing, commissioning and operation and 10 year Running costs • Indian cost ~ Rs 500Cr+(100Cr+150Cr)+150Cr ~ 900cr over three 5yr plan periods • The Science & technology benefit of LIGO-India is expected to be transformational
LIGO-India:Why is it a good idea?… for the World • Geographical relocation Strategic for GW astronomy • Increased event rates (x4) by coherent analysis • Improved duty cycle • Improved Detection confidence • Improved Sky Coverage • Improved Source Location required for multi-messenger astronomy • Improved Determination of the two GW polarizations • Potentially large Indian science user community in the future • Indian demographics: youth dominated – need challenges • Improved UG education system will produce a larger number of students with aspirations looking for frontline research opportunity at home. • Substantial data analysis trained faculty exists in India and Large Data Analysis Center Facilities are being planned
LIGO-India:Why is it a good idea? ……..for India • Jump start direct participation in GW Observations & Astronomy • Provides an exciting challenge at the International forefront of experimental science. Can tap and siphon back the extremely good UG students trained in India. (a cause for `brain drain’). • 1st yr summer intern 2010 MIT for PhD • Indian experimental scientist Postdoc at LIGO training for Adv. LIGO subsystem; Another Postdoc under consideration in LIGO & EGO • Experimental expertise related to GW observatories will thrive and attain high levels due to LIGO-India. • Challenging endeavour involving unforgiving technology mandates symbiotic interplay of Engineering and Science disciplines.. Revival of Advanced Instrumentation • Inclusive .. cooperation between Basic science research Institutes, High Technology DAE Labs, ISRO,..Educational IISER’s and Universities in highly visible frontier research
Science Payoffs • Synergy with other major Astronomy projects • SKA : Pulsars timing and GW background, GW from Pulsars ,… • ( RADIO: Square Kilometer array) • CMB : GW from inflation, cosmic phase transitions, dark energy …. • (Cosmic Microwave Background : WMAP, Planck, CMBPOl, QUaD,…) • X-ray satellite (AstroSat) : Spacetime near Black Holes, NS, …. • Gamma ray observatory: GRB triggers from GW • (FermiLAT, GLAST,….) • Thirty Meter Telescope: Resolving multiple AGNs, optical follow-up, … • INO: cross correlate neutrino signals from SN event • LSST: Astro-transients with GW triggers, Cosmic distribution of dark matter , Dark energy New Astronomy, New Astrophysics, New Cosmology, New Physics ”ANew Window ushers a New Era of Exploration in Physics & Astronomy” • Testing Einstein’s GR in strong and time-varying fields • Testing Black Hole phenomena • Understanding nuclear matter by Neutron star EOS • Neutron star coalescence events • Understanding most energetic cosmic events .. Supernovae, Gamma-ray bursts, LMXB’s, Magnetars • New cosmology..SMBHB’s as standard sirens.. EOS of Dark Energy • Phase transition related to fundamental unification of forces • Multi-messenger astronomy • The Unexpected !
Summary (Part 1) • LIGO-India will raise public profile of science since it will be making ongoing discoveries fascinating the young. GR, BH, EU and Einstein have a special attraction and a pioneering facility in India participating in important discoveries will provide science & technology role models with high visibility and media interest. Einstein@home; Black Hole Hunter… • Opportune to a launch the promising field GW Astronomy with high end technological spinoffs, well before it has obviously blossomed. • Once in a generation unique opportunity to host in India a sophisticated International Experiment Straining to hear the feeble notes of Einstein’s GW Symphony playing in the universe and deciphering the dark secrets that light or EMW can never ever reveal.. • A GREAT opportunity but a very sharp deadline of 31 Mar 2012. • LIGO-Lab needs to seek NSF nod latest by Dec 2011 • We must be ready with credible plan proposal from India by Nov 2011
End of Part I Thank you !!! Over to Tarun…
IndIGO Advisory Structure Committees: National Steering Committee: Kailash Rustagi (IIT, Mumbai) [Chair]Bala Iyer (RRI) [Coordinator]Sanjeev Dhurandhar (IUCAA) [Co-Coordinator]D.D. Bhawalkar (Quantalase, Indore)[Advisor] P.K. Kaw (IPR) Ajit Kembhavi (IUCAA) P.D. Gupta (RRCAT)J.V. Narlikar (IUCAA)G. Srinivasan International Advisory Committee Abhay Ashtekar (Penn SU)[ Chair] Rana Adhikari (LIGO, Caltech, USA) David Blair (ACIGA &UWA, Australia)Adalberto Giazotto (Virgo, Italy)P.D. Gupta (Director, RRCAT, India)James Hough (GEO ; Glasgow, UK)[GWIC Chair]Kazuaki Kuroda (LCGT, Japan)Harald Lueck (GEO, Germany)Nary Man (Virgo, France)Jay Marx (LIGO, Director, USA)David McClelland (ACIGA&ANU, Australia)Jesper Munch (Chair, ACIGA, Australia)B.S. Sathyaprakash (GEO, Cardiff Univ, UK)Bernard F. Schutz (GEO, Director AEI, Germany)Jean-Yves Vinet (Virgo, France)Stan Whitcomb (LIGO, Caltech, USA) Program Management Committee: C S Unnikrishnan (TIFR, Mumbai), [Chair] Bala R Iyer (RRI, Bangalore), [Coordinator] SanjeevDhurandhar (IUCAA, Pune) [Co-cordinator] TarunSouradeep (IUCAA, Pune) Bhal Chandra Joshi (NCRA, Pune) P Sreekumar (ISAC, Bangalore) P K Gupta (RRCAT, Indore) S K Shukla (RRCAT, Indore) Sendhil Raja (RRCAT, Indore)]
LIGO-India: … the opportunity Strategic Geographical relocation: science gain Polarization info Homogeneity of Sky coverage Courtesy: S.Kilmenko & G. Vedovato
LIGO-India: … the opportunity Strategic Geographical relocation: science gain Sky coverage : Synthesized Network beam (antenna power) Courtesy: B. Schutz
LIGO-India: … the opportunity Strategic Geographical relocation: science gain Sky coverage: ‘reach’ /sensitivity in different directions Courtesy: B. Schutz
notes • Optimal orientation of IndIGO arm is due north and due east • 4 detector network sensitivity insensitive to IndIGO orientation (diff from LIGO-A which is antipodal to Livingston • F: Network efficiency to capture signal and unif across sky • Alpha: Alignment factor – ability of NW to detect both polarizations • 2-4: Adding 4th site enables more robust coherent DA..2 null streams • Triangulation requires measurement of arrival times ..need comman timing ref, reconstruction of signal WF • Coherent NW analysis..Reconstructs WF and sky coords simultaneously Data from all detectors in NW simult processed to reconstruct a common GW signal consistent with detector responses..Src param obt my maximization of liklihood ratio over signal wf and sky coords • NW performance dep on # of detectors, location, orientation of arms • NW of K similar detectors has a factor \sqrt(K) lower noise Ampl than indiv • As more detectors are added to NW, detection rates increase • NW with more detectors less affected by non-gaussian and non-stationary noise..lower false alarm rates, higher detection confidence for same nW threshold..Relocation to LA does not affect detection rates for the 2 possible orientation..reconstruction of GW polarization does prefer one..
notes • Baseline determines accuracy with which sources can be located in the sky • Time delay triangulation..longer blbetter rel accursmaller skyposn errorintr amp and polarizn wrong
Using GWs to Learn about the Source: an Example Over two decades, RRI involved in computation of inspiral waveforms for compact binaries & their implications and IUCAA in its Data Analysis Aspects. Can determine • Distance from the earth r • Masses of the two bodies • Orbital eccentricity e and orbital inclination i
Gravitational wave Astronomy : vit GWIC Roadmap Document
Unique Technology Payoffs • Lasers and optics..Purest laser light..Low phase noise, excellent beam quality, high single frequency power • Applications in precision metrology, medicine, micro-machining • Coherent laser radar and strain sensors for earthquake prediction and other precision metrology • Surface accuracy of mirrors 100 times better than telescope mirrors..Ultra-high reflective coatings : New technology for other fields • Vibration Isolation and suspension..Applications for mineral prospecting • Squeezing and challenging “quantum limits” in measurements. • Largest Ultra-high vacuum system 10^-9 torr (1picomHg) in the region.Such a UHV system will provide industry a challenge and experience. • Computation Challenges: Cloud computing, Grid computing, new hardware and software tools for computational innovation.
Gravitational wave Astronomy : vit • Synergy with other major Astronomy projects • SKA : Pulsars timing and GW background, GW from Pulsars ,… • ( RADIO: Square Kilometer array) • CMB : GW from inflation, cosmic phase transitions, dark energy …. • (Cosmic Microwave Background : WMAP, Planck, CMBPOl, QUaD,…) • X-ray satellite (AstroSat) : Spacetime near Black Holes, NS, …. • Gamma ray observatory: GRB triggers from GW • (FermiLAT, GLAST,….) • Thirty Meter Telescope: Resolving multiple AGNs, optical follow-up, … • INO: cross correlate neutrino signals from SN event • LSST: Astro-transients with GW triggers, Cosmic distribution of dark matter , Dark energy GWIC Roadmap Document
23 July 2011 Dear Bala: I am writing to invite you to attend the next meeting of the Gravitational Wave International Committee (GWIC) to present the GWIC membership application for IndIGO. This in-person meeting will give you the opportunity to interact with the members of GWIC and to answer their questions about the status and plans for IndIGO. Jim Hough (the GWIC Chair) and I have reviewed your application and believe that you have made a strong case for membership…… Invitation to Present IndIGO case for GWIC Membership on July 10 at GWIC meeting at Cardiff