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Arengu-uuringud 6. Arengumõõdikud I . Mati Heidmets 2013 sügissemester. Arengumõõdikud. Välja kujunenud valdkonnad + instrumentide komplekt hindamaks maailma riikide/ühiskondade arengutaset. Tuntumad konstruktid , mida hinnatakse:

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arengu uuringud 6 arengum dikud i

Arengu-uuringud6. Arengumõõdikud I

Mati Heidmets

2013 sügissemester

arengum dikud
Arengumõõdikud

Välja kujunenud valdkonnad + instrumentide komplekt hindamaks maailma riikide/ühiskondade arengutaset. Tuntumad konstruktid, mida hinnatakse:

  • Vabadus (poliitilised vabadused, majandusvabadus, demokraatia)
  • Võrdsus (ebavõrdsus, võrdsed võimalused)
  • Tervis, haigestumine, eluiga, hälbiv käitumine
  • Majanduskeskkond, tehnoloogia, innovatsioon, internet
  • Riigi võimekus
  • Korruptsioon
  • Keskkonnaseisund
  • Usaldus, sallivus, rahumeelsus, subjektiivne rahulolu, õnn, väärtused

Pilk neile, millised läbi löönud - mis see on, kes mõõdab/hindab ja kuidas, millised andmebaasid olemas, näited tulemustest

vabadus vaatepunktid ja hindajad
Vabadus: vaatepunktid ja hindajad
  • Poliitilised ja kodanikuvabadused: Freedom House
  • Ajakirjandusvabadus: Freedom House
  • Demokraatia: The Economist
  • Majandusvabadus: Heritage Foundation
vabadus freedom house
Vabadus: Freedom House

Mission Statement

Freedom House is an independent nongovernmental organization that supports the expansion of freedom in the world. Freedom is possible only in democratic political systems in which the governments are accountable to their own people; the rule of law prevails; and freedoms of expression, association, and belief, as well as respect for the rights of minorities and women, are guaranteed.

Freedom House is a clear voice for democracy and freedom around the world. Since its founding in 1941 by prominent Americans concerned with the mounting threats to peace and democracy, Freedom House has been a vigorous proponent of democratic values and a steadfast opponent of dictatorships of the far left and the far right.   Eleanor Roosevelt and Wendell Willkie served as Freedom House’s first honorary co-chairpersons.

freedom house
Freedom House

Andmekogumine ja publitseerimine

Beginning with Freedom in the World in 1972, Freedom House has actively published comparative surveys and special reports focused on the state of democracy and human rights around the world.

Freedom House's annual publications include Freedom in the World, an assessment of the state of political rights in 192 countries and 14 related and disputed territories; Freedom of the Press, an annual report on journalistic independence around the world; Nations inTransit, which examines 29 countries from Central Europe to Eurasia; and Countries at the Crossroads, a first-of-its-kind survey of democratic governance that evaluates performance in 30 key countries that are at a crossroads in determining their political future.

In addition, Freedom House produces a number of special reports focusing on issues of import. Freedom House's publications are widely used by policy-makers, journalists, and scholars, and can be read for free on this website

Vt: http://www.freedomhouse.org/template.cfm?page=363&year=2008

fh m tmisinstrumendid
FH mõõtmisinstrumendid

Survey Methodology

  • The 2008 survey, which provides analytical reports and numerical ratings for 195 countries and territories, expands a process conducted since 1980 by Freedom House. The findings are widely used by governments, international organizations, academics, and the news media in many countries. Countries are given a total score from 0 (best) to 100 (worst) on the basis of a set of 23 methodology questions divided into three subcategories. Assigning numerical points allows for comparative analysis among the countries surveyed and facilitates an examination of trends over time. The degree to which each country permits the free flow of news and information determines the classification of its media as “Free,” “Partly Free,” or “Not Free.” Countries scoring 0 to 30 are regarded as having “Free” media; 31 to 60, “Partly Free” media; and 61 to 100, “Not Free” media. The criteria for such judgments and the arithmetic scheme for displaying the judgments are described in the following section. The ratings and reports included in Freedom of the Press 2008 cover events that took place between January 1, 2007, and December 31, 2007.

Checklist of Methodology Questions

A. LEGAL ENVIRONMENT (0–30 POINTS)

  • 1. Do the constitution or other basic laws contain provisions designed to protect freedom of the press and of expression, and are they enforced? (0–6 points)
  • 2. Do the penal code, security laws, or any other laws restrict reporting, and are journalists punished under these laws? (0–6 points)
  • 3. Are there penalties for libeling officials or the state, and are they enforced? (0–3 points)
  • 4. Is the judiciary independent, and do courts judge cases concerning the media impartially? (0–3 points)
  • 5. Is freedom of information legislation in place, and are journalists able to make use of it? (0–2 points)
  • 6. Can individuals or business entities legally establish and operate private media outlets without undue interference? (0–4 points)
  • 7. Are media regulatory bodies, such as a broadcasting authority or national press or communications council, able to operate freely and independently? (0–2 points)
  • 8. Is there freedom to become a journalist and to practice journalism, and can professional groups freely support journalists’ rights and interests? (0–4 points)
fh m tmisinstrumendid ii
FH mõõtmisinstrumendid II

B. POLITICAL ENVIRONMENT (0–40 POINTS)

1. To what extent are media outlets’ news and information content determined by the government or a particular partisan interest? (0–10 points)

  • 2. Is access to official or unofficial sources generally controlled? (0–2 points)
  • 3. Is there official censorship? (0–4 points)
  • 4. Do journalists practice self-censorship? (0–4 points)
  • 5. Do people have access to media coverage that is robust and reflects a diversity of viewpoints? (0–4 points)
  • 6. Are both local and foreign journalists able to cover the news freely? (0–6 points)
  • 7. Are journalists or media outlets subject to extralegal intimidation or physical violence by state authorities or any other actor? (0–10 points)

C. ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT (0–30 POINTS)

  • 1. To what extent are media owned or controlled by the government, and does this influence their diversity of views? (0–6 points)
  • 2. Is private media ownership transparent, thus allowing consumers to judge the impartiality of the news? (0–3 points)
  • 3. Is private media ownership highly concentrated, and does it influence diversity of content? (0–3 points)
  • 4. Are there restrictions on the means of journalistic production and distribution? (0–4 points)
    • 5. Does the state place prohibitively high costs on the establishment and operation of media outlets? (0–4 points)
  • 6. Do the state or other actors try to control the media through allocation of advertising or subsidies? (0–3 points)
  • 7. Do journalists receive payment from private or public sources whose design is to influence their journalistic content? (0–3 points)
  • 8. Does the economic situation in a country accentuate media dependency on the state, political parties, big business, or other influential political actors for funding? (0–4 points)

Legend

Country Status: Free (0–30)/Partly Free (31–60)/Not Free (61–100). Legal Environment: 0–30 points, Political Environment: 0–40 points, Economic Environment: 0–30 points, Total Score: 0–100 points

freedom house 1973 2013
FreedomHouse 1973-2013

  Not Free (47)  Partly Free (58)  Free (90)

demokraatia the economist
Demokraatia: The Economist

The Economist has in a study examined the state of democracy in 167 countries and attempted to quantify this with an Economist Intelligence Unit Index of Democracy which focused on five general categories; free and fair election process, civil liberties, functioning of government, political participation and political culture. Sweden scored a total of 9.88 on a scale from zero to ten, which was the highest result, North Korea scored the lowest with 1.03.

"Full Democracies", "Flawed Democracies", and "Hybrid Regimes" are considered to be democracies and "Authoritarian Regimes" are considered to be dictatorial.

demokraatia m tmine
Demokraatia mõõtmine

The democracy index is a kind of weighted average based on the answers of 60 questions, each one with either two or three permitted alternative answers. Most answers are "experts' assessments“.

The questions are distributed into the five categories enumerated supra. Each answer is translated to a mark, either 0 or 1, or for the three answer alternative questions, 0.5. Likewise, there are a few questions considered so important that a low score on them yields a penalty on the total score sum for their respective categories, namely

  • "Whether national elections are free and fair";
  • "The security of voters";
  • "The influence of foreign powers on government";
  • "The capability of the civil servants to implement policies".

The five category indices, which all are listed in the report, are then averaged to find the democracy index for a given country. Finally, the democracy index, rounded to one decimal, decides the classification of the country, as quoted:

  • Functioning democracies—scores of 8-10.
  • Flawed democracies—scores of 6 to 7.9.
  • Hybrid regimes—scores of 4 to 5.9.
  • Authoritarian regimes—scores below 4.
democracy index 2010 a report from the economist intelligence unit the economist
Democracy Index 2010(A report from the Economist Intelligence Unit, The Economist)
democracy index 2010 a report from the economist intelligence unit the economist1
Democracy Index 2010(A report from the Economist Intelligence Unit, The Economist)
democracy index 2010 a report from the economist intelligence unit the economist2
Democracy Index 2010(A report from the Economist Intelligence Unit, The Economist)
majandusvabadus heritage foundation
Majandusvabadus: Heritage Foundation

MissionFounded in 1973, The Heritage Foundation is a research and educational institute - a think tank - whose mission is to formulate and promote conservative public policies based on the principles of free enterprise, limited government, individual freedom, traditional American values, and a strong national defense.

Index of economic freedom: http://www.heritage.org/Index/

The Index's 2008 definition of economic freedom is the following; "The highest form of economic freedom provides an absolute right of property ownership, fully realized freedoms of movement for labor, capital, and goods, and an absolute absence of coercion or constraint of economic liberty beyond the extent necessary for citizens to protect and maintain liberty itself."

The index scores nations on 10 broad factors of economic freedom using statistics from organizations like the World Bank, the IMF and the Economist Intelligence Unit:Business Freedom,Trade Freedom, Monetary Freedom, Freedom from Government, Fiscal Freedom, Property Rights, Investment Freedom, Financial Freedom, Freedom from Corruption, Labor Freedom,

The 10 factors are averaged equally into a total score. Each one of the 10 freedoms is graded using a scale from 0 to 100, where 100 represents the maximum freedom.

miks vabadus ja demokraatia
Miks vabadus ja demokraatia?

Demokraatia: vähemohtlik kui autokraatia, kohanemisvõimelisem, kollektiivset tarkust kasutav …

E. Fromm: põgenemine vabaduse eest?!

Oluline: individuaalse ressursi avanemine, etteaimatav ühiskond, inimõigused...

v rdsus v rdsed v imalused
Võrdsus, võrdsed võimalused

Gini indeks, sissetulekute jaotus, mõõdab UNDP

The Gini coefficient is a measure of statistical dispersion most prominently used as a measure of inequality of incomedistribution or inequality of wealth distribution. It is defined as a ratio with values between 0 and 1: A low Gini coefficient indicates more equal income or wealth distribution, while a high Gini coefficient indicates more unequal distribution. 0 corresponds to perfect equality (everyone having exactly the same income) and 1 corresponds to perfect inequality (where one person has all the income, while everyone else has zero income).

Sooline võrdõiguslikkus, mõõdavad paljud

UNDP - The Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM) is a measure of inequalities between men's and women's opportunities in a country. It combines inequalities in three areas: political participation and decision making,economic participation and decision making, and power over economic resources. It is one of the five indicators used by the United Nations Development Programme in its annual HDR

OECD - The OECD Gender, Institutions and Development Data Base (GID-DB) is a tool to determine and analyse obstacles to women’s social and economic development. The data base, which was introduced by the OECD Development Centre on International Women's Day 2006, covers a total of 160 countries and comprises an array of 60 indicators on gender discrimination.

Vt: http://stats.oecd.org/WBOS/Index.aspx?DatasetCode=GID&lang=en

slide31
Sooline ebavõrdsusAllikas: OECD: http://www.oecd.org/document/11/0,3343,en_2649_33935_38205899_1_1_1_1,00.html
  • .
miks v rdsus
Miks võrdsus?
  • Sama mis vabadus: individuaalse ressursi avanemine, surve demokraatiale ja inimõigustele …
  • Eriline surve soolisele võrdõiguslikkusele – MDG!?
  • Võrdsuse pahupool?
tervis haigused eluiga
Tervis, haigused, eluiga

World Health Organization

  • WHO is the directing and coordinating authority for health within the United Nations system. It is responsible for providing leadership on global health matters, shaping the health research agenda, setting norms and standards, articulating evidence-based policy options, providing technical support to countries and monitoring and assessing health trends.
  • In the 21st century, health is a shared responsibility, involving equitable access to essential care and collective defence against transnational threats.
  • Vt: http://www.who.int/research/en/

WHOSIS, the WHO Statistical Information System, is an interactive database bringing together core health statistics for the 193 WHO Member States. It comprises more than 70 indicators, which can be accessed by way of a quick search, by major categories, or through user-defined tables. The data can be further filtered, tabulated, charted and downloaded. The data are also published annually in the World Health Statistics Report

h lbiv k itumine
Hälbiv käitumine

Normi eiramine

Deviance describes actions or behaviors that violate cultural norms including formally-enacted rules (e.g., crime) as well as informal violations of social norms (e.g., nose-picking). It is the remit of sociologists and criminologists to study how these norms are created; how they change over time; and how they are enforced.

Anomie, in contemporary English language is a sociological term that signifies in individuals, an erosion, diminution or absence of personal norms, standards or values, and increased states of psychological normlessness. When applied to a government or society, anomie implies a social unrest.Emile Durkheim described anomie as a state of relative normlessness or a state in which norms have been eroded. A norm is an expectation of how people will behave, and it takes the form of a rule that is socially rather than formally enforced.

Arengukontekstis: kuritegevus, alkoholism, tapmised, narkomaania …

hindajad
Hindajad
  • Vangid: KingsCollege, UK http://www.kcl.ac.uk/schools/law/research/icps
  • Alkoholitarbimine: WHO, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Alcohol_consumption_per_capita_world_map.PNG
  • Tapmised: Jeandredu Toit: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Image:Map-world-murder-rate.svg
  • Enesetapud: WHO, http://www.who.int/mental_health/prevention/suicide/country_reports/en/index.html
  • AIDS: WHO
prison population europe allikas http www kcl ac uk schools law research icps
Prison population: EuropeAllikas: http://www.kcl.ac.uk/schools/law/research/icps
  • .
slide43
Tapmiste arv(100 000 elaniku kohta, 200)(Allikas: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Map-world-murder-rate-red.svg)

.

slide44
World alcohol consumption - litres per capita http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Image:Alcohol_consumption_per_capita_world_map.PNG
enesetappude arv 100 000 elaniku kohta allikas http en wikipedia org wiki image suiciderates png
Enesetappude arv100 000 elaniku kohta(Allikas: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:SuicideRates.PNG)
t helepanekuid
Tähelepanekuid

Soolised erinevused: Within the Western world, nearly 90% of all murders are committed by males, with males also being the victims of 74.6% of murders (according the US Department of Justice). .

According to official statistics, about a million people die by suicide annually, more than those murdered or killed in war. Worldwide suicide rates have increased by 60% in the past 50 years, mainly in the developing countries. Most suicides in the world occur in Asia, which is estimated to account for up to 60% of all suicides. According to the World Health Organization, China, India and Japan may account for 40% of all world suicides.

In the Western world, males die much more often by means of suicide than do females, although females attempt suicide more often. This pattern has held for at least a century. Some medical professionals believe this stems from the fact that males are more likely to end their lives through effective violent means (guns, knives, hanging, etc.), while women primarily use more failure-prone methods such as overdosingon medications; again, this has been the case for at least a century

rahumeelsus
Rahumeelsus

The Institute for Economics and Peace - global non-profit research organization headquartered in Sydney, Australia with a branch in New York

TheGlobal Peace Index (GPI) is an attempt to measure the relative position of nations' and regions' peacefulness.

Globaalse rahuindeksi koostamisel võetaksearvesse vaadeldudmaademilitariseeritust, kaitsevõimet, kuritegevuseja vägivaldsete konfliktide taset, relvade levikutelanikkonnas ning maa enda relvastatuse taset, terrorismija välise agressiooni ohtu, osalemist rahuoperatsioonides,väliskonfliktidessurmasaanutearvu.

Lisaks nn positiivne rahumeelsus.