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Lecture 9 : Lifestyle Factors(3) Overview. TOBACCO ALCOHOL DISCUSSION. Tobacco (1). Smoking kills more UK civilians each year than the Germans did in the whole of World War II. Smoking causes about 6,500 deaths each year in Ireland, or 20 per cent of all deaths.

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tobacco 1
Tobacco (1)
  • Smoking kills more UK civilians each year than the Germans did in the whole of World War II.
  • Smoking causes about 6,500 deaths each year in Ireland, or 20 per cent of all deaths.
  • Early research included a study by Austin Bradford Hill and Richard Doll of 41,000 doctors over 12 years.
tobacco 2
Tobacco (2)
  • Tobacco was allegedly introduced into Europe by Sir Walter Raleigh.
  • Cigarettes were introduced into Britain and Ireland in the 1850s.
  • Male consumption peaked during World War II, declined then increased again in the 1950s, then declined again in the 1960s.
  • Female consumption has been rising since World War II.
  • Mortality patterns follow consumption patterns with a 20 year lag.
tobacco 3
Tobacco (3)

Tobacco smoke contains over 1,000 substances:

  • Nicotine increases fatty acids in the blood and stickiness of blood platelets contributing to atheroma and hence coronary heart disease.
  • Tar contains at least 12 known carcinogens.
  • Carbon particles, phenols, aldehydes and cyanide are irritants.
  • Carbon monoxide interferes with the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood.
tobacco 4
Tobacco (4)

Known health effects of smoking include:

  • Lung cancer. Tobacco is the largest single cause of lung cancer. Lung cancer is the major cause of cancer death in men. Women are catching up.
  • Bronchitis. Rates are 20 times higher in heavy smokers.
  • Coronary Heart Disease. Risks of heart disease mortality are 5 times higher amongst smokers.
  • Birth complications: Miscarriage, stillbirth, neonatal mortality. Babies are lighter. More likely to be educationally retarded.
  • Other: Tuberculosis, gastric and duodenal ulcers, cancers of bladder, mouth, oesophagus.
tobacco 5
Tobacco (5)
  • The risks of lung cancer are doubled for passive smokers.
  • Your body takes several years to recover once you stop smoking.
  • Tobacco consumption varies by social class.
  • Less is known about geographical variations in consumption in Ireland, but variations are probable.
  • Alcohol is a known health problem is consumed in large quantities. Alcohol-related diseases include:
    • Cirrhosis of the liver
    • Cancer of mouth, throat and gullet
    • Cardiomyopathy
    • Chronic gastritis
    • Perinatal complications (small babies, deformities, mental retardation)
  • Alcohol in moderation (especially red wine) is believed by some authorities to be beneficial to health.
  • Alcoholism is a major source of stress for family members
  • Alcohol is a major contributory factor to accidents, both road traffic and in the home.
  • There is no shortage of advice on lifestyle factors. However, the evidence in support of some theories is inconsistent.
  • Lifestyle factors attract media attention because many people are interested in controlling their health.
  • Lifestyle factors are favoured by governments because they provide a cheap means for being seen to be doing something about the nation’s health.