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Terrorism - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Terrorism. Definitions and examples. What is terrorism?. Take a couple minutes with the person next to you and come up with a definition and put in the first box In the second box, write down all the terms you heard from others that might improve or change your definition

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Definitions and examples

What is terrorism
What is terrorism?

  • Take a couple minutes with the person next to you and come up with a definition and put in the first box

  • In the second box, write down all the terms you heard from others that might improve or change your definition

  • Terrorism: Unlawful use of force against persons or property to coerce government or society to further a political objective

    • (from the FBI)

Why use terrorism
Why use terrorism?

  • Synthesis of war and theater

  • Two main objectives

    • 1. Instill fear

      • intimidation

    • 2. Send a message

Acts of terrorism
Acts of Terrorism

  • Bombings

  • Kidnappings

  • Hijackings

  • Assassinations

  • Mass murder

  • Weapons of mass destruction

  • Often highly planned, but most effective when terror seems random

Cycle of violence
Cycle of violence

  • Hard to break

  • Real or imagined oppression

  • 1. Elite won’t give up power

  • 2. Oppressed use terrorism to gain power

  • 3. Elite/oppressors strike back harder

    • Makes oppression real

  • 4. Oppressed may gain help and sympathy from outside groups to help cause/fight back

Types of actions
Types of actions

  • 1. Dynastic Assassinations

  • Take out countries leadership to create chaos and instability

  • 2. Random Terror

  • Random act of violence to cause greatest fear in public

  • Non-discriminatory

  • Any place, any time

  • 4. Focused Terror

  • Attack oppressor in their place of power

  • Ft. Dix (2 times), Pentagon

  • 5. Mass Terror

  • State sanctioned terror against its own citizens for political purposes

Terrorist as actors
Terrorist as Actors

  • 1. Fundamentalists

  • Desire to go back to a time when things were perfect/better (possibly never existed)

  • Ku Klux Klan -return to pre-Civil War, white power, started as Southern then grew, modern world is not good so need a scapegoat=blacks, immigrants

  • Al-Qaeda –go back to pre-Israel Sunni Muslim “state”

    • Strictly follow sharia law (religious law)

  • Often mix religion with their ideology

  • 2. Anarchists

  • Against authority b/c all government limits freedom

  • Political anarchy: strike out against government

  • Women as likely as men to be anarchists b/c of problems with the moral/social order

  • Ted Kaczynsky (Unabomber): oppressors of freedom as targets

    • mainly corporate, educational, and governmental

  • Colombine shooters: Against social order

    • School rules and implicit peer rules/order

  • 3. Separatists

  • One group of people want to separate from current country/government b/c they are oppressed

  • Oppressed keep attacking until they separate

  • Northern Ireland (still pat of UK)

    • Irish Republican Army have attacked the British for decades

  • Palestine: PLO wants out of Israel (fundamentalist and separatist)

  • Basque region, Spain: ETA militant separatists who want out of Spain

  • 4. Marxist

  • Want to end exploitation

    • Gender, race, ethnicity

    • Want equality

  • Use Marxist ideology; masses are too easily exploited; must help them

  • Lenin

  • Mao

  • Castro

  • Terrorists before communists

  • 5. State Sponsored Terrorism

  • Use Terrorists groups to carry out political objectives

  • Too dangerous to do on own

  • Pakistan: Kashmir area, assisted al-Qaeda and Taliban

  • USSR: sponsored communist revolutions around the world

  • USA: aided the Mujahedeen in Afghanistan

  • Too many other examples

  • 6. State Terrorism

  • Government uses terror against own people

  • Nazis: Holocaust

  • Pol Pot: Khmer Rouge

    • 1.5 M Cambodians died of starvation, execution, disease, and overwork

  • Stalin: Purge USSR of anti-Communists

  • French Rev: Jacobins- “Reign of Terror”