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OJDDA Conference. Practical Application of Effective Practices Troy Fuller and John Aarons OJDDA Training Team. Acknowledgements. Research Conducted By: Ed Latessa , Ph.D. University of Cincinnati Corrections Institute Don Andrews, Ph. D. James Bonta , Ph.D. Rationale for Training.

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Practical Application of Effective Practices

Troy Fuller and John Aarons

OJDDA Training Team

acknowledgements

Acknowledgements

Research Conducted By:

Ed Latessa, Ph.D.

University of Cincinnati Corrections Institute

Don Andrews, Ph. D.

James Bonta, Ph.D.

rationale for training
Rationale for Training

IMPORTANCE OF TRAINING

A recent study of parole by the Urban Institute indicated that the “no parole” group performed about as well as the “mandatory and discretionary parole” group.

A meta-analytic review of approximately 25 studies indicated that probation is no more effective than other community-based sanctions such as fines, community service, etc.

Bonta et al. (forthcoming)

rationale for training5
Rationale for Training

PROBLEMS WITH “TRADITIONAL” COMMUNITY SUPERVISION

  • Dosage
  • Length of community supervision
  • Caseload size
  • Unknown risk of offenders
  • Content of interaction with offender
  • Focus on external controls
  • Other policy/procedural issues
rationale for epics training
Rationale for EPICS Training

IMPORTANCE OF TRAINING

The most current research is suggesting that the relationship with the officer and what is discussed is important.

necessary ingredients for change
Necessary Ingredients for CHANGE

Expectancy

Approach

Facilitator

Characteristics

Offender Characteristics

Adapted from: Michael D. Clark. (2001). “Influencing Positive Behavior Change: Increasing the Therapeutic Approach of Juvenile Courts.”

relationship skills
Relationship Skills

RELATIONSHIP SKILLS

Staff should be open, warm, and have respectful communication.

Staff should be non-blaming, empathic, and genuine.

Staff should be flexible, use humour, and be engaging.

Staff should be enthusiastic and express optimism.

Staff should avoid argumentation and support self-efficacy.

rationale for training9
Rationale for Training

IMPORTANCE OF TRAINING

A study on case management practices in Manitoba probation found that the development of supervision plans was based more on what the court mandated than what the assessments indicated.

in number of topics discussed,  in recidivism

The more you focus on the more likely you are to increase recidivism. FOCUS ON CRIMINOGENIC!!!!!

Bonta, Rugge, Seto, and Coles (2004)

rationale for training10
Rationale for Training

VERA INSTITUTE

“If we get [community supervision] right, we could cut incarceration by 50 percent, have less crime rather than more crime, and spend the same amount of money.”

Right Conversation

Right Kid

Right Time

Improved Result

principles of effective intervention
Principles of Effective Intervention

THREE MAIN PRINCIPLES

  • Risk
  • Need
  • Responsivity
  • *********Activities*********************
principles of effective intervention12
Principles of Effective Intervention

NEED PRINCIPLE

  • Identify and target criminogenic needs:

- Attitudes, values, beliefs

- Peer associations

- Personality

- Education/employment

- Family

- Substance abuse

- Leisure/recreation

principles of effective intervention13
Principles of Effective Intervention

RESPONSIVITY PRINCIPLE

  • Specific responsivity

- Remove barriers to treatment

- Match style and mode of service delivery to key offender characteristics

cognitive behavioral model
Cognitive-Behavioral Model

DEFINING THEMES AND CHARACTERISTICS

ACTIVE

PRESENT-FOCUS

BASED ON THEORIES OF LEARNING

INDIVIDUALIZED

WELL RESEARCHED

RELATIVELY BRIEF

cognitive behavioral model15
Cognitive-Behavioral Model

DEFINING THEMES AND CHARACTERISTICS

STEPWISE PROGRESSION

Simple Complex

Easier Harder

Less

threatening More threatening

cognitive behavioral model16
Cognitive-Behavioral Model

DEFINING THEMES AND CHARACTERISTICS

TREATMENT PACKAGES

Treatment plans should combine various techniques:

- Reinforcement

- Modeling and role playing

- Token economies

- Response cost

- Contingency contracts

- Thinking reports

structure of contact
Structure of Contact

1. Check-In

2. Review

3. Intervention

4. Homework and Behavioral Rehearsal

structure of contact19
Structure of Contact

CHECK-IN

CHECK-IN:

1. To determine if client has any crises/acute needs

2. Build rapport

3. Discuss compliance issues

structure of contact20
Structure of Contact

REVIEW

1. The skills discussed in your prior meeting

2. The application of those skills

3. Troubleshooting any continued problems in the use of those skills

structure of contact21
Structure of Contact

INTERVENTION

1. Identify continued areas of need

2. Identify trends in problems that the client experiences

3. Teach relevant skills

4. Target problematic thinking

structure of contact22
Structure of Contact

HOMEWORK AND PRACTICE

1. Give the client an opportunity to see you model what you are talking about

2. Provide the client with the opportunity to role play the new skill BEFORE leaving your office with feedback

3. Assign the client homework that focuses on applying the new skill

4. Give instructions that the client should follow before the next visit

reinforcement
Reinforcement

DEFINITION

  • Positive reinforcement involves the application of a stimulus to increase behavior.
  • Example:

An offender completes his homework assignments for one week, and receives two extra hours of free time.

reinforcement24
Reinforcement

DEFINITION

  • Negative reinforcement involves the removal of a stimulus to increase behavior.
  • Example:

An offender remains sober for four consecutive months, and the probation officer extends her curfew.

reinforcement25
Reinforcement

COMPONENTS OF EFFECTIVE REINFORCEMENT

  • The systematic use of reinforcement is the most powerful tool in strengthening or teaching new behavior.
  • The effective use of reinforcement involves selecting and administering appropriate reinforcers.
reinforcement26
Reinforcement

TYPES OF REINFORCERS

  • Material objects can be used as tangible reinforcers.
  • Examples oftangible reinforcers include food, clothes, electronic devices, books, and recreational equipment.
reinforcement27
Reinforcement

TYPES OF REINFORCERS

  • Token reinforcers are symbolic items that have value because of what they can be exchanged for or what they stand for.
  • Examples oftoken reinforcers include money, awards, certificates, as well as tokens/points.
reinforcement28
Reinforcement

TYPES OF REINFORCERS

  • Social reinforcers include praise, acknowledgement, attention, approval, etc.
  • There are several advantages associated with the use of social reinforcers:
    • ease of administration
    • limitless supply
    • availability for immediately use
    • naturalreinforcers
reinforcement29
Reinforcement

EXAMPLES OF REINFORCERS

  • Some sample reinforcers in community-based correctional settings include:

- specific praise/feedback on performance

- indirect praise

- group recognition

- extended curfew

- less frequent meetings with staff

- assist group facilitator/act as a mentor

- badges, ribbons, certificates

- job in a special setting

- gift certificates

reinforcement30
Reinforcement

GUIDELINES FOR ADMINISTERING REINFORCERS

  • The reinforcer must be administered during or immediately following the behavior.
  • Reinforcement must be contingent on performing the desired behavior. In other words, the person must be required to engage in the desired behavior in order to receive reinforcement.
  • Reinforcers should be administered consistently.
reinforcement31
Reinforcement

EFFECTIVE SOCIAL REINFORCEMENT

  • Immediately tell the offender that you like the type of behavior or speech just exhibited.
  • Explain why you like what the client said or did (provide specific reasons).
  • The support provided to the client regarding the approved behavior is given greater emphasis in order to distinguish it from the type of support normally given to the client.
reinforcement32
Reinforcement

SKILL DEMONSTRATION

Please watch the following demonstration of the skill.

Be sure to note each step as it is practiced.

reinforcement33
Reinforcement

PARTICIPATION EXERCISE

  • Please complete Reinforcement Exercise At Your Table.
reinforcement34
Reinforcement

POTENTIAL PROBLEMS

  • What can you do if you have little or no behavior to reinforce?
  • There are two alternatives:
    • Watch carefully and, when the behavior occurs even at a low level, begin giving systematic reinforcement.
    • Model and prompt the desired behavior.
punishment
Punishment

DEFINITION

  • Punishment involves the application of a stimulus to decrease behavior.
  • Example:

An offender has possession of contraband, and the correctional officer gives him extra chores to do.

punishment36
Punishment

DEFINITION

  • Punishment also involves the removal of a stimulus to decrease behavior.
  • Example:

An offender has a positive drug screen after a weekend pass, and his case manager takes away his privileges for one week.

punishment37
Punishment

GUIDELINES FOR ADMINISTERING PUNISHERS

  • The consequence (removal of reinforcers or introduction of undesirable consequences) should occur immediately after the target behavior.
  • The consequence should be administered each time the target behavior occurs.
  • The client should be made aware of the target behavior for which the consequence will be administered.
  • Reinforcement should not closely follow the delivery of the consequence.
  • The consequence should be preceded by a warning cue.
punishment38
Punishment

POTENTIAL PROBLEMS

  • If punishment is used alone, then another maladaptive behavior is likely to fill the gap.
  • Therefore, it is important to reinforce a competing response.
  • Competing Values/Behaviors
punishment39
Punishment

POTENTIAL PROBLEMS

  • The unwanted behavior may increase at first.
  • Don’t Be Surprised.
  • Part of Change Process.
punishment40
Punishment

POTENTIAL PROBLEMS

  • It is important to look for unwanted side effects:

- emotional reactions (e.g., anger, anxiety, etc.)

- avoidance/withdrawal

- perpetuation effects

- negative peer support

effective disapproval
Effective Disapproval

GUIDELINES FOR EFFECTIVE DISAPPROVAL

  • Immediately tell the offender that you did not like the type of behavior or speech just exhibited by the client.
  • Explain why you did not like what the offender said or did (provide specific reasons).
effective disapproval42
Effective Disapproval

GUIDELINES FOR EFFECTIVE DISAPPROVAL

  • The disapproval is given greater emphasis in order to distinguish it from the type of support normally given to the client.
  • The staff member encourages the client to think about why the behavior is undesirable, and what kinds of short and long term consequences will be derived through continued use of this behavior.
effective disapproval43
Effective Disapproval

SKILL DEMONSTRATION

Please watch the following demonstration of the skill.

Be sure to note each step as it is practiced.

effective disapproval44
Effective Disapproval

PARTICIPATION EXERCISE

  • Please complete Effective Disapproval Exercise.
effective use of authority
Effective Use of Authority

GUIDELINES FOR EFFECTIVE USE OF AUTHORITY

  • Focus message on behavior and not the client.
  • Be direct and specific concerning demands.
  • Use a normal voice. Do not yell and scream!!!
  • Specify choice and attendantconsequences—this is a big one! Do not use doomsday ultimatums.
effective use of authority46
Effective Use of Authority

GUIDELINES FOR EFFECTIVE USE OF AUTHORITY

  • Give encouraging messages.
  • Support words with action. Follow through!
  • Provide respectfulguidance towards compliance.
  • Look for good things too; do not just monitor for compliance.
  • Reward or praise compliance.
effective use of authority47
Effective Use of Authority

SKILL DEMONSTRATION

Please watch the following demonstration of the skill.

Be sure to note each step as it is practiced.

effective use of authority48
Effective Use of Authority

PARTICIPATION EXERCISE

Please complete Effective Use of Authority Exercise.

behavioral contracts
Behavioral Contracts

DEFINITION

  • A behavioral contract is an agreement between two or more persons that lists specific behaviors that the parties will perform and the consequences that will result.
behavioral contracts50
Behavioral Contracts

NEGOTIATING A BEHAVIORAL CONTRACT

  • Arrange a meeting with the client.
  • Discuss concerns with his/her behavioral performance.
  • Explain the concept of a behavioral contract, and provide a few examples.
behavioral contracts51
Behavioral Contracts

NEGOTIATING A BEHAVIORAL CONTRACT

  • Select appropriate reinforcers with the client.
  • Negotiate the ratio of behavior to reinforcement. Specifically, establish what must be done to receive reinforcement.
  • Determine the achievement level to be met by the client. In order to ensure motivation, you might initially start the client within an easily achievable level and negotiate for a higher level of performance.
behavioral contracts52
Behavioral Contracts

PARTICIPATION EXERCISE

  • Complete sample behavioral contract.
modeling
Modeling

DEFINITIONS

  • A model is a person who demonstrates a behavior for another person.
  • The term modeling is the process through which a trainer demonstrates the behavior to be learned by the trainee.
  • Imitation occurs when the trainee says or does what the trainer did, or something very similar.
anti criminal modeling
Anti-Criminal Modeling

GUIDELINES FOR MODELING

  • Be sure to carefully identify the exact behavior you are going to teach.
  • Define the behavior in observable, measurable terms.
  • Be certain that the behavior is within the developmental level of the trainee.
  • Simplify the behavior (i.e., specify the skill steps).
anti criminal modeling55
Anti-Criminal Modeling

GUIDELINES FOR MODELING

  • Be certain that the learner pays attention to the behavior being modeled.
  • Do not model inappropriate behaviors!
  • Keep a record of the client’s progress.
anti criminal modeling56
Anti-Criminal Modeling

GUIDELINES FOR MODELING

  • Demonstrate the behavior in concrete and vivid ways.
  • Use self-instructions.
  • Reinforce the client for demonstrating the desired behavior (and follow the guidelines for effective reinforcement discussed earlier).
social skills training
Social Skills Training

REVIEW OF STEPS

1. Define the skill

2. Record/measure the skill

3. Set goals

4. Teach social skills

5. Reduce inappropriate behaviors

6. Evaluate social skills

7. Extend social skills

social skills training58
Social Skills Training

“TEACHABLE MOMENTS”

  • It is also important to capitalize on the teachable moment.
  • This allows you to turn such occasions into a corrective teaching interaction.
social skills training59
Social Skills Training

TIPS TO EXTEND/GENERALIZE SOCIAL SKILLS

  • Involve socially competent peers, who reinforce and model appropriate skills, in the intervention.
  • Train in more than onesetting.
  • Intervene directly in the setting where the social skills need to be exhibited.
cognitive restructuring
Cognitive Restructuring

Man is disturbed not by things but the views he takes of them.

Epictetus, 135 A.D.

It is very obvious that we are influenced not by “facts” but by our interpretation of facts.

Alfred Adler, 1954

Still the man hears what he wants to hear and disregards the rest.

Simon and Garfunkel, 1968

cognitive restructuring61
Cognitive Restructuring

EXTERNAL INTERNAL

BEHAVIOR

cognitive restructuring62
Cognitive Restructuring

SKILL DEMONSTRATION

Please watch the following demonstration of how to teach the cognitive behavioral model.

cognitive restructuring63
Cognitive Restructuring

PARTICIPATION EXERCISE

  • Please complete Cognitive Restructuring Exercise
cognitive restructuring64
Cognitive Restructuring

“TAPES”

  • Tapes are thoughts or ideas that you have that say it is acceptable to engage in criminal or some other antisocial behavior.

- Neutralizations

- System Bashing

- Victim Stance

- Macho Man/Woman

cognitive restructuring65
Cognitive Restructuring

“COUNTERS”

  • Once we identify a tape that leads to criminal or other problematic behavior, we need to develop a counter.
  • Counters are alternative thoughts and behaviors that replace the old tapes and behaviors.
cognitive restructuring66
Cognitive Restructuring

PARTICIPATION EXERCISE

Please complete tapes and counters Exercise.

cognitive restructuring67
Cognitive Restructuring

THINKING REPORTS

  • A brief description of the situation.
  • A detailed report of thoughts.
  • A brief report of feelings.
  • Identify any significant patterns displayed in the thinking report, and then discuss counters.
problem solving skills
Problem Solving Skills

STEPS OF PROBLEM SOLVING

1. Stop and Think and Identify the Problem:

How do you know you have a problem? Discuss some signs or cues that might alert the client that they are facing a problem.

2. Clarify Goals:

Determine what exactly the client wants to happen in the situation and what is best for him/her and everyone involved.

3. Generate Alternative Solutions:

Brainstorm for possible solutions to the problem. It is important that all ideas be accepted without judgment.

problem solving skills69
Problem Solving Skills

STEPS OF PROBLEM SOLVING

4. Evaluate:

Review all the alternatives generated in step 3 and discuss the short-term and long-term consequences of the situation.

5. Implement the plan:

Develop concrete action steps in this stage and role play the plan. The client will then use this plan in between groups.

6. Evaluate the plan:

Once the client has tried the plan, he/she will need to determine whether or not it is “working”. Discuss some ways to evaluate and modify the plan implemented in Step 5.

problem solving skills70
Problem Solving Skills

PARTICIPATION EXERCISE

  • Please complete Problem Solving Exercises.
summary of training
Summary of Training

PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER

  • Community Corrections can be effective at reducing recidivism.
  • Success with offenders requires the application of the Cognitive Behavioral Model and the Principles of Effective Intervention.
  • Just as we have clients practice new social skills, we should too!
stages of change
Stages Of Change

Pre- Contemplation

Termination

Relapse

Maintenance

Contemplation

Action

Preparation

Prochaska’s “Stages of Change” Taken from: Miller, Duncan and Hubble (1999), “The Heart & Soul of Change”, American Psychological Association

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