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Chabot College. ELEC 99.08 Router Components & “Show” Commands. RAM. NVRAM. Flash. ROM. Console. Interfaces. Auxiliary. Internal Components. RAM. Temporary storage for router configuration files RAM content is lost on power down or restart Stores... Routing tables ARP cache

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chabot college
Chabot College

ELEC 99.08

Router Components & “Show” Commands

internal components

RAM

NVRAM

Flash

ROM

Console

Interfaces

Auxiliary

Internal Components
slide3
RAM
  • Temporary storage for router configuration files
  • RAM content is lost on power down or restart
  • Stores...
    • Routing tables
    • ARP cache
    • Fast switching cache
    • Packet buffering
nvram
NVRAM
  • Non-volatile RAM
  • Stores backup/startup configuration files
  • Content is not lost when router is powered down or restarted.
flash
Flash
  • EEPROM (Electronically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory)
  • Holds the Cisco IOS (Internetworking Operating System)
  • Allows updating of software without replacing the Flash chip
  • Multiple versions of IOS can be stored
  • Retained on power down
slide6
ROM
  • Contains POST (Power On Self Test)
  • A bootstrap program (loads the Cisco IOS)
  • And mini-operating system software:
    • Backup, trimmed down version of the IOS
    • Upgrades require installing new chip set
interfaces
Interfaces
  • Network connections through which packets enter and exit the router
  • Attached to the motherboard or as separate modules on “modular” routers.
ram specifics

RAM

NVRAM

Flash

ROM

Console

Interfaces

Auxiliary

RAM Specifics

As the router is booted, the following is loaded into RAM’s Working Storage.

Command

Executive

Internetwork

Operating

System

(IOS)

RAM

Programs

Active

Config

File

Tables

Buffers

ram specifics9

RAM

RAM Specifics
  • Programs include the bootstrap program that
  • tests the equipment (POST)
  • and locates the IOS.

Programs

ram specifics10

RAM

RAM Specifics

Once the IOS is located by the bootstrap program, it is loaded in to RAM.

Internetwork

Operating

System

(IOS)

Programs

ram specifics11

RAM

RAM Specifics

Part of the IOS is the Command EXEC. This is the program that translates the commands you type into a language that the IOS can understand.

Command

Executive

Internetwork

Operating

System

(IOS)

Programs

ram specifics12

RAM

RAM Specifics

Once the IOS is initialized, it looks for an active configurations file (usually in NVRAM) and loads it. This file tells the router specifically what to do.

Command

Executive

Internetwork

Operating

System

(IOS)

Programs

Active

Config

File

ram specifics13

RAM

RAM Specifics
  • The tables are loaded from the configuration file including...
  • ARP Tables
  • Routing Tables

Command

Executive

Internetwork

Operating

System

(IOS)

Programs

Active

Config

File

Tables

ram specifics14

RAM

RAM Specifics

Finally, all leftover memory in RAM is used as the buffer for processing incoming and outgoing packets.

Command

Executive

Internetwork

Operating

System

(IOS)

Programs

Active

Config

File

Tables

Buffers

router status commands
Router Status Commands
  • “Show” commands yield status information about various router components, as shown on the next slides...
example show commands
Example Show Commands

show version

  • displays:
    • configuration of the system hardware
    • IOS version
    • names and sources of configuration files
    • the current setting of the configuration register(used in password recovery)
example show commands17
Example Show Commands

show version

Try it now with Router e-SIM:

  • Start Router e-SIM
  • Give all your routers a configuration:
    • click SHOW DONE
    • in the row of SET buttons at the bottom, click A, B, C, D, E
    • click HIDE DONE
  • Login - Password - cisco
  • Enable privileged mode: Secret Password: class
example show commands18
Example Show Commands

show running-config

  • displays the active configuration file loaded in RAM

Try it now with Router e-SIM

example show commands19
Example Show Commands

show startup-config

    • displays the backup configuration file stored in NVRAM

Try it now with Router e-SIM:

  • Your router will not have a startup configuration until you save the running configuration to the startup file:Lab_A# copy run start
  • Now try show start again
example show commands20
Example Show Commands

show interfaces

  • displays statistics for all interfaces configured on the router

Try it now with Router e-SIM.

example show commands21
Example Show Commands

show protocols

  • displays the status of all configured Layer 3 protocols
  • displays the status of all interfaces

Try it now with Router e-SIM.

example show commands22
Example Show Commands

show ip route

  • displays the routes to all networks known to the router

Try it now with Router e-SIM.

example show commands23
Example Show Commands

show controller

  • displays information about each interface controller. Key: shows whether serial interface is DTE or DCE (setting determined by the connected cable).Important mainly in Cisco lab, where some routers are configured DCE.

Router e-SIM doesn’t understand this command, so you’ll need to try it on a real router...

slide24

Router#show interfaces

Router#show version

Router#show flash

Router#show ip route

Router#show buffers

Router#show processes CPU

Router#show protocols

Router#show running-config

Router#show startup-config

RAM

NVRAM

Flash

Internetwork Operating System

Backup

Configuration

File

Operating

Systems

Interfaces

Programs

Active

Configuration

File

Tables

and

Buffers