Why do we fall ill class 9th NCERT Science presentation lecture - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Why do we fall ill class 9th NCERT Science presentation lecture

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Why do we fall ill class 9th NCERT Science presentation lecture
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Why do we fall ill class 9th NCERT Science presentation lecture

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  1. Why Do We Fall ill?Health & Diseases Download link available on last slide Presented by Rahul

  2. What is Health? • According to WHO (World Health Organization) • Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well being. • How Classified Health? • we classified health is two categories 1. Personal Health 2. Community Health

  3. Personal Health • State of Physical, Mental and Social Well Being at Personal Level • How Maintain Personal Health? • By personal hygiene • By proper and regular exercise and relaxation • Use clean drinking water • By proper nutrition and balance diet

  4. Community Health • Community health refer as consists of improving, protecting and maintaining health of entire community • How maintain community health • Provide facilities for prevention of disease • Provide proper sanitation and hygiene • By good socio-economic condition and good nutrition • By improving health education and public awareness

  5. What is Disease? • The word disease derived from- • Dis + Ease = not at ease • Definition- disease is the condition of disrupted functioning of an organ or organ systems of the body • Which factors affecting health or causing disease- • These factors classified into two broad categories • Intrinsic factors • Extrinsic factors

  6. Intrinsic factors • Intrinsic factors are those factors which cause by genetic or hormonal disbalance, means within in factors, these are- • Genetic and chromosomal disorder • Malfunctioning of body organ parts like defect in heart • Hormonal disbalance

  7. Extrinsic factors • Extrinsic factors are those factors which causes by foreign particles pathogen etc. means outside factors these are- • Environmental pollution • Disease caused by pathogen • Unbalance diet and fast-food • Tobacco, drugs and alcohol consumption

  8. Types of disease • Depending upon level of spread of disease • Endemic- when spared among the people living in a particular locality like in community e.g. Influenza • Epidemic- spreads among adjacent locality. Several locality, city or country e.g. Japanese Encephalitis • Pandemic- spared world-wide e.g. AIDS, Malaria

  9. Types of diseaseB. Acute and Chronic disease Acute Diseases Chronic Diseases Lasts for larger duration Less severe High dur to longer duration Drastic long term effects Loss of weight Tired all the time TB, diabetes, AIDS etc. • Duration • Intensity • Effect on health • Example • Last for a small duration • Severe • Less due to shorter duration • Very short term effect • No loss of weight • No tiresome effect • Common cold, food poisoning etc.

  10. Types of diseaseC. congenital and acquired disease Congenital Diseases Acquired diseases Acquired diseases during one’s in lifetime Caused mainly due to pathogen Deficiency disease Typhoid, cholera, TB, Influenza etc. • Means inborn diseases, since birth • Caused due to genetic/chromosomal disorders • Malfunctioning of organs • Example- color blindness, hemophilia, syndromes etc.

  11. Types of Acquired Diseases • Acquired diseases broadly classified into tow main categories • Communicable diseases- communicate, spread one to another like typhoid, cholera, AIDS etc. • Non-Communicable diseases- like diabetes, cancer, etc,

  12. Communicable diseases Direct Indirect Through air – T.B., common cold, pneumonia Through contaminated food & water E.g. hepatitis cholera etc. Vectors & carriers E.g. typhoid, malaria, filariasis Fomite borne – use of door handles, napkins, utensils etc. E.g. conjunctivitis etc. • Physical contact with infected person (contagious diseases) • E.g. measles, chickenpox • Animal bits – like Rabies • Contact with soil – like tetanus • Sexual contact like- syphilis, AIDS • Transplacental transmission • E.g. AIDS, (mother to child – vertical transplacental)

  13. Non- communicable disease or Non- infectious diseases • Causes- • Malfunctioning of an organ, E.g. Heart diseases • Hypo/hyper secretion of hormones • E.g. hypo secretion of insulin –diabetes mellitus • Hypo secretion of thyroid – cretinism in children • (retorted growth – Myxoedema in adults) • Malfunctioning of immune system • E.g. allergy • Cancer • Dietary deficiency diseases

  14. Immunity • Inborn ability of an organism to resist and ot fight against disease

  15. Immunity Inborn • Inborn immunity/ non- specific immunity • Present – since birth Acquired • Adaptive immunity • Specific immunity • Acquired- during lifelong

  16. Acquired Immunity Types Passive Body receive readymade antibodies E.g. immunoglobulins, Ig (IgA, IgB, IgE, IgG, IgM) Active • Involve body’s functioning by a synthesis of antibody

  17. Viral diseases • Diseases • Rabies ( Hydrophobia) • Poliomyelitis • Mumps • Common cold • Pathogen • Rabies virus • Polio virus • Mumps virus • Rhino virus • Sign & symptoms • Spams of muscles of throat % chest, irritability, restlessness, fear to water • Treatment- rabies vaccine- Pasteur treatment • Motor nerve infection, muscle wasting, paralysis like state of lower limbs • Treatment- oral polio/Sabin vaccine • Injectable/Salk vaccine • Swelling and pain over salivary glands • Treatment- antibiotics & MMR vaccine ( Measles, Mumps and Rabies) • Running nose, throat hoarseness, nose block

  18. Viral diseases • Diseases • Measles • AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) • Pathogen • Rubeola virus • HIV (Acquired Immune Deficiency Virus) • Sign & symptoms • High fever, rashes on skin, cold like symptoms, lost of appetite • Treatment- isolation, antibiotic, MMR • Asymptomatic – (no symptoms) • AIDS related complexes (ARC) • Then full blown – immune system completely damage)

  19. Protozoan diseases • Diseases • Malaria • Amoebiasis • African sleeping sickness • Kala-azar • Pathogen • Plasmodium sp. • Entamoeba histolytica • Trypanosoma gambiens • Leishmania donovani • Sign & symptoms • Chill- to high fever, sweat • Pain in joints, anaemia, liver swelling • Treatment- quinine • Intestinal pain, dysentery • Sleepiness • High fever, enlargement of spleen and liver

  20. Helminths diseases • Diseases • Ascariasis • elephantiasis • Dracunculiasis • Taeniasis • Pathogen • Ascaris lumbricoids • (roundworm) • Wuchereriabancrofti • Dracunculusmedinensis • Taenia solium • Sign & symptoms • Vomiting, diarrhoea, abdominal pain, restlessness, insomnia • Swelling & thickening of skin of legs, arms, scrotum, breast • Blisters (filled with fluid)- skin, arms, legs, and shoulder • Abdominal pain, nausea, anaemia, loss of appetite, indigestion

  21. Bacterial diseases • Diseases • T.B. (tuberculosis or Koch’s disease) • Typhoid • Pathogen • Mycobacterium toberculae • Salmonella typhae • Sign & symptoms • Lungs-cough sputum, blood stained, • Evening rise of fiver, loss of appetite, loss of weight, breathlessness, tiredness • Treatment- Anti Koch’s treatment (AKT) • Streptomycin, isoniazid, • Para amino salicylic acid (PAS) • Vaccine- BCG (Bacillus Calmette Guerin) • DOTS ( directly observed treatment short course) programme for T.B. • Fever up to 104º F, abdominal pain, vomiting, rash on body, headache • Treatment- antibiotics • Investigation-Widal test

  22. Bacterial diseases • Diseases • Cholera • Diphtheria • Pertussis (Woofing cough) • Tetanus ( lock jaw) • Pathogen • Vibrio cholerae • Corynebacterium diphtheriae • Bordetella pertussis • Clostridium tetani • Sign & symptoms • Diarrhoea, dehydration, vomiting • Treatment- ORS (oral rehydration solution), salt and sugar solution • Hight fever, defaulting in breathing • Treatment- DPT (Diphtheria Pertussis Tetanus) vaccine, antibiotics • Fever, large bouts of cough • Treatment- antibiotics, DPT vaccine • Sustained contraction of muscles spasms, lock jaw • Treatment- DPT, and TT vaccine

  23. Bacterial diseases • Diseases • Pneumonia • Plague (black death) • Leprosy (Hansen’s disease • Anthrax • Acne • Pathogen • Streptococcus pneumoniae • Yersinia pestis • Mycobacterium leprae • Bacillus anthracis • Propionibacterium acne • Sign & symptoms • Infection & inflammation in alveoli of lungs, cough, fever, breathlessness • High fever, headache, unconsciousness, enlargement of lymph nodes axillary • Patches on skin, ulcers, nerve damage, wasting of fingers & toes • Symptoms like common cold, nauseam vomiting, blood stained • Pimples at age of adolescence

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