Early Childhood Intervention. Natalia Mufel , Education Specialist, UNICEF, New Delhi. Developmental delays.
Natalia Mufel, Education Specialist,
UNICEF, New Delhi
z Child is assessed to have atypical behaviour or does not meet expected normal development for actual or adjusted age in one or more of the following areas of development: perceptual, fine or gross motor, social and emotional, adaptive, language and communication, or cognitive.
z A delay is measured by using validated developmental assessments. Delays may be mild, moderate or severe.
z Caused by: poor birth outcomes, inadequate stimulation and nurturing care from birth onward, malnutrition, chronic ill health and other organic problems, psychological and familial situations, or other environmental factors.
z Child has a physical, health, sensory, psychological,
intellectual or mental health condition or impairment thatrestricts functioning in one or more areas, such asphysical movement, cognitive and sensory functions,self-care, memory, self-control, learning, or relating toothers.
z Many national and international typologies
(classifications) of disabilities exist that list impairmentsby type.
zInthe early years, early detection and intervention, as well as family support come to the fore. Early intervention is critical and holds tremendous potential for success. It requires high awareness among health professionals, parents, teachers as well as other professionals working with children. Family- and community-based early intervention services should be linked with early learning programmes and pre-schools, which meet the needs of children with disabilities and facilitate their smooth transition to school.
z ECI programmes provide a system of early childhood services and support for:
z Vulnerable children at high risk for developmental delays or with confirmed developmental delays or disabilities, and
z Their parents and families.
z The primary goal of ECI programmes is to support parents in helping their children use their competencies to achieve their full developmental potential and attain expected levels of development, to the extent possible.
z Home visits and centre-based servicesz Parent education
z Balanced early stimulation and developmental servicesz Physical, language and occupational therapiesz Special education and inclusive servicesz Medical, nursing and nutritional servicesz Support services, including social work services, referrals and protective services, if required
z Serve infants and children, from birth to 3, and up to 5z Receive referrals from Health service
z Identify children early through home outreach, and
referrals from parents, polyclinics, and child care centresz Continuous referral and tracking systems are required: identification, screening and/or assessment, individualised family service plans (IFSP), services, case management, referrals, tracking and follow-up
z Provide transition to inclusive/regular pre-schools and primary schools or, if necessary, special facilities
z Collaborate closely with rehabilitation
hospitals for health/medical interventions, when needed
z Early Interventionists
z Special Pedagogues/Special Educatorsz Physical Therapists
z Language/Speech Therapistsz Audiologists
z Occupational Therapistsz Parent Educators
z Psychologists and Family Therapistsz Nurses
z Social Workers and Protective Services Personnelz Evaluators
ECI + parent
Level of risk
High risk of
Low or no
Mild delay or
No delay or
but at risk
Regular, Annualless frequent
Centre only,Groups only
Locations Home visits Centre,
& centre fewer visits
z ECI services represent far more than a new organisational framework.
z They require profound changes in ways of thinking about:
z Children and how to maximise their potential;z Parental rights and empowerment; and
z Professional competencies and roles in supporting parents and children.
activities, guidance and comments
z Strategic planning
z Initial design activities
z Programme organisation and inter-institutional relationships
z Training activities
z Programme implementation
z Programme evaluation and monitoringz Preparing a Plan of Action
Mrs. V.R.P. Sheilaja Rao Principal Investigator
Dr. Jayanthi Narayan Co-Investigator
Mrs. Lakshmi Ravindra Research Officer
Ms. Rama Cousik Research Assistant
NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR THE MENTALLY HANDICAPPED
(Government of India, Ministry of Social Justice & Empowerment)
Manovikas Nagar P.O.Secunderabad 500 009, A.P,India
Shift from Medical to Educational Model by engaging Multidisciplinary Team approach for Assessment, Programming & Evaluation
Initiate Parent Training Programs for parents of students attending ECSE prior to placement in Regular Pre Schools
Develop IEP & IFSP for School Readiness
To develop School Readiness schedule for individualised and group learning by selecting customised placement in regular and special school settings
Develop Transition Curriculum for shift from home to pre-school
Adaptations in core and non – academic curricular tasks
- CONVERSATION (Green)
- GAMES (Brown)
- SONGS (Pink)
- STORY (Blue)
- CREATIVE ACTIVITY (Yellow)
Representative pictures, sequenced in steps to teach activities from the calendar. Each step is adapted to suite any disability condition with iconic representation in order to make cards more teacher friendly.
3. TEACHER’S MANUAL
Background details of various disability guidelines to use the training package and impart tips to be used in teaching strategies for the disabled in regular pre-schools.
10.00 A.M. to 10.30 A.M. Prayer, Yoga and Physical Exercises Saturday and Sunday Holidays