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Cyrus W. Field was the driving force in America; on the British side it was Charles Bright and brothers John and Jacob B PowerPoint Presentation
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Cyrus W. Field was the driving force in America; on the British side it was Charles Bright and brothers John and Jacob Brett. The Cold War. ARPA Created. In 1957 this satellite called Sputnik motivated President Dwight D. Eisenhower and the United Stated government to create the

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slide1

Cyrus W. Field was the driving force in America; on the British side it was Charles Bright and brothers John and Jacob Brett.

slide2

The Cold War

ARPA

Created

In 1957 this satellite called Sputnik motivated President

Dwight D. Eisenhower and the United Stated government to create the

Advanced Research Projects Agency. (ARPA)

slide3

James R. Killian, Jr.

Then MIT President became Presidential Assistant for Science. And helped established an agency called Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA).

This organization united some of America's most brilliant people. Their goal was to establish the United States lead in science and technology applicable to the military.

ARPA

ARPA was as unique as its role, reporting directly to the Secretary of Defense and operating in coordination with but completely independent of the military research and development (R&D) establishment. ARPA's mission has been to assure that the U.S. maintains a lead in applying state-of-the-art technology for military capabilities and to prevent technological surprise from her adversaries.

slide4

The Race

to the

Moon

NASA

took over

ARPA

President John F. Kennedy

On May 25, 1961 Kennedy declared, "...I believe this nation should commit itself to achieving the goal, before this decade is out, of landing a man on the Moon and returning him safely to the Earth."

slide5

Many years ago the great British explorer George Mallory, who was to die on Mount Everest, was asked why did he want to climb it. He said, "Because it is there."

     Well, space is there, and we're going to climb it, and the moon and the planets are there, and new hopes for knowledge and peace are there. And, therefore, as we set sail we ask God's blessing on the most hazardous and dangerous and greatest adventure on which man has ever embarked.

Click on picture

packet switching july 1961
Packet Switching July 1961

July 61 First paper on

Packet switching.

Leonard Kleinrock

http://www.pbs.org/opb/nerds2.0.1/geek_glossary/packet_switching_flash.html

who s your daddy
Who’s Your Daddy?

Packet Switching Inventors

Leonard Kleinrock

Paul Baran

Donald Davies

d r jack ruina
Dr. Jack Ruina

60’s Style

WAR and PEACE

Vannevar Bush

Raython Co-Founder

Lincoln Labs

1961, director of ARPA

Original mission was to build a survivable network built on cross country radar system. the “SAGE “ Semi-Automatic Ground Environment

In 1962, hired J.C.R. Licklider

To head ITPO

Funded University Research

Funded Larry Roberts

slide9

MIT Visionary Psychologist that saw the

potential of the Intergalactic network.

1962 Came from Bolt, Beranek and Newman,

(BBN) in Cambridge, MA.

1st to head up IPTO Information

Techniques Processing Office

Continued large contracts to universities,

as well as high powered Labs.

Laid foundations for the ARPANET

Had the vision. But, no clue how to build it.

Saw that Larry Roberts was the “Answer”

JRC Licklider

“Lick”

Headed up IPTO

slide10

Believed in Licklider concept and funded the first Network research.

Like Licklider he tried to hire

Larry Roberts from MIT to IPTO

Funded Roberts in first program that used POTS to send packets from TX-1 at MIT to Tom Merrill’s Q-32 in California UCLA.

Sutherland's program enabled the creation of the field of computer graphics that has led to all the graphical displays available today.

Air traffic control.

Ivan Sutherland

2nd head of

ARPA’s

IPTO

slide11

1966 Robert Taylor became director of ARPA's Information Processing Techniques Office (IPTO),

Because of duplicate work being done at ARPA funded institutions, and because the institutions were always asking for newer and better (more expensive) computers. Roberts decided that ARPA should link these institutions together, and save money.

Both Sunderland and Taylor tried to hire Roberts

When Roberts refused they appealed to

Charlie Hertzfeld who put pressure on the

director at Lincoln Labs who convinced Roberts

to take the ARPA job.

Got Hertzfeld to agree to uncontrolled funding of the network experiment.

BobTaylor

3rd Head of

ARPA’s

IPTO

slide12

The Man with the plan

1964 met with JCR Licklider, Licklider’s

vision sparks Roberts to undertake the creation

and implementation of the internet

After much resistance Roberts begins the design

of the ARPANET.

The APRANET as proposed to congress by

Roberts was to explore computer resource sharing

and packet switched communications. It had

Nothing to do with nuclear war, or survivability.

Reliability was one of the key network issues that

Dictated packet switching.

Lawrence Roberts

4rd head of

ARPA’s IPTO

slide14

MIT Visionary Psychologist that saw the

potential of the Intergalactic network.

1962 Came from Bolt, Beranek and Newman,

(BBN) in Cambridge, MA.

1st to head up IPTO Information

Techniques Processing Office

Continued large contracts to universities,

as well as high powered Labs.

Laid foundations for the ARPANET

Had the vision. But, no clue how to build it.

Saw that Larry Roberts was the “Answer”

JRC Licklider

“Lick”

5th Director

Back as head in 1973

slide15

ARPA 1957

DARPA 1972

ARPA 1993

DARPA 1996

DARPA - On March 23, 1972, by DoD Directive, the name was changed to the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). DARPA was established as a separate defense agency under the Office of the Secretary of Defense.

ARPA - On February 22, 1993, DARPA was redesignated the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) -- as the agency was known before 1972. The change was outlined in President Bill Clinton's strategy paper, "Technology for America's Economic Growth, A New Direction to Build Economic Strength.“

DARPA - On February 10, 1996, Public Law 104-106, under Title IX of the Fiscal Year 1996 Defense Authorization Act, directed an organizational name change to the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA).