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Efficient Path Aggregation and Error Control for Video Streaming. OMESH TICKOO, Shiv Kalyanaraman , John Woods Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI). : “ shiv rpi ”. Sponsors: ARO, DARPA-NMS, Intel. Introduction. Motivation: Video over best-effort Internet

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efficient path aggregation and error control for video streaming
Efficient Path Aggregation and Error Control for Video Streaming

OMESH TICKOO, Shiv Kalyanaraman, John Woods

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI)

: “shiv rpi”

Sponsors: ARO, DARPA-NMS, Intel

introduction
Introduction
  • Motivation: Video over best-effort Internet
    • Broadband => more access bandwidth
    • End-to-end (E2E) => constraints due to path congestion
    • Virtual extension of broadband access pipe E2E using multi-paths
  • Path Diversity: dimensions
    • Aggregate Capacity
    • Delay diversity
    • Loss diversity
    • Correlations in path performance characteristics
  • Key: Match inherent content diversity to path diversity
motivation internet path congestion limits e2e bandwidth

Performance Saturation (even w/ many flows/path)

Motivation: Internet Path Congestion limits E2E bandwidth

Internet

Server Access Link

Client Access Link

Performance

Access Link Speed

multi paths
Multi-paths?

Overlays or peers can provide path diversity even if

multi-paths not available natively in the Internet.

Issue: diversity of performance (b/w, delay, loss),

possible correlations…

smart multi path capacity aggregation smca motivation

Performance Scaling

Performance

Access Link Speed

Smart Multi-path Capacity Aggregation (SMCA): Motivation

Path (Flow) Aggregator/ Multiplexer

Path (Flow) Aggregator/ De-multiplexer

Internet

Client

Access

Link

Server

Access

Link

E2E Broadband Virtual Pipe Abstraction!!

slide6

High Delay/Jitter

Low

Capacity

Lossy

Single path issues: capacity, delay, loss…

Time

  • Network paths usually have:
    • low e2e capacity,
    • high latencies and
    • high/variable loss rates.
smca leverage diversity

Low Perceived Loss

High Perceived

Capacity

Low Perceived Delay/Jitter

SMCA: Leverage Diversity!
smca framework
SMCA: Framework

Content

Delay Diversity Unit

Loss Diversity Unit

Network

Receive Buffer

slide9

SMCA: Delay Diversity Unit

High Delay

RANK

Low Delay

RANK

Application Data

Paths Ranked by Latency

slide10

SMCA: Delay Diversity Unit

High Delay

RANK

Low Delay

RANK

Application Data

Paths Ranked by Latency

Early deadline packets mapped to low-delay paths

slide11

SMCA: Delay Diversity Unit

High Delay

RANK

Low Delay

RANK

Transmit Queue

Paths Ranked by Latency

Early deadline packets (in order of rank)

mapped to low-delay paths (in order of rank)

slide12

SMCA: Delay Diversity Unit

High Delay

RANK

Low Delay

RANK

Transmit Queue

Paths Ranked by Latency

Late deadline packets mapped to high-delay paths…

Note: these packets leave the sender roughly at the same time as the early-deadline packets

slide13

SMCA: Delay Diversity  Loss Diversity

High Delay

Low Delay

Transmit Queue

Paths Ranked by Latency

Consider a delay-based group of paths and the associated

packets…

slide14

SMCA: Delay Diversity  Loss Diversity

High Delay

Low Delay

Transmit Queue

Paths Ranked by Latency

Consider a delay-based group of paths and the associated

packets…

slide15

SMCA: Loss Diversity Unit

High Loss

RANK

Low Loss

RANK

n GOPs

Paths Ranked by Loss Rate

Re-rank Paths within this group based upon packet loss rates

slide16

SMCA: Loss Diversity Unit

P

B

B

P

High Loss

RANK

B

B

I

Low Loss

RANK

n GOPs

Paths Ranked by Loss Rate

Enlarged View of Packets (with content labels) and Paths

slide17

SMCA: Loss Diversity Unit

P

B

B

P

High Loss

RANK

B

B

I

Low Loss

RANK

n GOPs

Paths Ranked by Loss Rate

Map high priority packets (eg: I-frame packets) to low loss rate

rank paths

slide18

SMCA: Loss Diversity Unit

P

B

B

P

High Loss

RANK

B

B

I

Low Loss

RANK

n GOPs

Paths Ranked by Loss Rate

Continue map packets to low loss rank paths based upon priority

(Eg: P-frames get the next set of loss-ranked paths)

slide19

SMCA: Loss Diversity Unit

P

B

B

P

High Loss

RANK

B

B

I

Low Loss

RANK

n GOPs

Paths Ranked by Loss Rate

Lowest priority packets get high loss rate paths

(within the delay-based group of paths)

slide20

SMCA: Loss Diversity Unit + FEC

P-FEC

I-FEC

P

B

High Loss

RANK

B

P

B

B

I

Low Loss

RANK

n GOPs

Paths Ranked by Loss Rate

FEC (unequal FEC) for a GOP mapped within the same delay-group,

but mapped to the higher loss paths

smca performance with increasing number of paths

Num. Of Paths

1

2

3

4

5

PSNR (dB)

20.98

22.48

25.42

26.02

28.04

Content Source

Content Sink

Table 1. Average PSNR Variation with Number of Paths

Background traffic generator

Background traffic sink

SMCA: Performance with increasing number of Paths
topology to test delay diversity and loss diversity gains

Content Source

Content Sink

Background traffic generator

Background traffic sink

Topology to test delay diversity and loss diversity gains

5 paths

smca gains with delay diversity

Avg. Delay

(ms)

SMCA

PSNR(dB)

PT

PSNR(dB)

OPMS

PSNR(dB)

300

21.78

18.73

11.03

100

25.12

24.21

19.19

50

28.32

29.46

24.33

30

30.12

31.63

27.96

Table 3. Gains with Delay Variation

SMCA gains with delay diversity

SMCA achieves even better performance (than simple multi-path mapping: OPMS) when average delay and jitter is higher

smca gains with loss diversity

Avg. Loss Prob.

SMCA

PSNR(dB)

PT

PSNR(dB)

OPMS

PSNR(dB)

0.4

22.78

20.31

11.64

0.35

26.32

26.86

18.21

0.1

29.03

29.02

24.43

0.05

29.32

31.82

26.06

Table 2. Gains with Loss Variation

SMCA gains with loss diversity

SMCA achieves even better performance (than simple multi-path mapping: OPMS) when average loss and loss variations are higher!

summary
Summary
  • Multi-path performance diversity can be leveraged E2E
    • Key: must be mapped to content diversity
    • (Similar to lessons learnt from content-driven unequal FEC protection vs uniform FEC protection)
  • Ideas:
    • Map late deadline packets to high latency paths
    • Map higher priority packets to lower loss rate paths (within a delay-based group of paths)
      • FEC packets sent on paths different from that of associated content (FEC: lower priority)
  • Our scheme can scale to handle lots of paths
    • Possible with p2p networks (eg: 10-100 kbps from single path, but 10s of paths)
    • Does not require MD coding, or high complexity optimization