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Chemistry and Energy
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  1. Chemistry and Energy From Alternative Fuel to Blowing Sh*t up

  2. Inorganic Chemistry and The Periodic Table

  3. Octane – C8H18 2 C8H18 + 25 O2 18 H2O + 16 CO2 (unstable) (unstable) (stable) (stable) Release of energy Heat Work (pressure-volume work) Energy on Earth

  4. Pressure-Volume work CO2H2OCO2 H2OCO2H2O CO2H2OCO2H2O CO2H2OCO2 O2 O2 O2 O2 O2 O2 C8H8

  5. Evidence of Pressure Volume Work –Liquid N2 • Liquid N2: Boiling point, 77K, -196 0C, -321 0F • For reference, the coldest temperature ever recorded was 184.0 K −89.2 °C (−128.6 °F;) at the Soviet Vostok Station in Antarctica on July 21, 1983.

  6. How does it work? • It takes very little energy to vaporize liquid N2. (0.67 cal/mol, compared to water at 9.8 cal/mol). • The heat from the tounge instantly vaporized liquid N2, • protective barrier of insulating gas, which does work on the liquid, lifting it away from the tounge.

  7. Octane – an organic molecule with inorganic origins. • Octane – Where did it come from? • Fossil Fuel – Plant matter (C6H12O6) decaying away from O2 (buried organic matter) • Where does sugar come from? 6 H2O + 6 CO2 C6H12O2 + 6 O2 (stable) (stable) (unstable) (unstable) • The Energy comes from Light!

  8. Photosystem II

  9. Photosystem II CO2 Electron Transport Chain H+ e- C6H12O6 + e- +

  10. Photosystem II CO2 Electron Transport Chain H+ e- C6H12O6 + e- + +

  11. Photosystem II CO2 Electron Transport Chain H+ e- C6H12O6 + e- + + +

  12. Photosystem II CO2 Electron Transport Chain H+ e- C6H12O6 + 2 H2O + hn 4 e- 4 H+ + O2 e- + + + + H H+ O H H+ e-e-e-e- H+ H O H+ H

  13. Photosystem II-inspired solar fuel CO2 Electron Transport Chain H+ C6H12O6 2 H2O + hn 4 e- 4 H+ + O2 4 H+ + 4e-  2 H2 2 H2O + hn 2 H2 + O2 O2 H2 H+

  14. Explosives • 2 H2 + O2 H2O • Effective explosive • Solid • Unstable • Entirely converts to a gas (N2, CO2, H2O) • Releases heat • Low oxygen balance (self-contained oxidant) • Examples: • TNT • RDX • Octanitrocubane

  15. Octanitrocubane • Nitro groups (oxidant) • Carbon chains-fuel (like octane) • Zero oxygen balance: Converts entirely to N2, CO2 • C8O16N8 8 CO2 + 4 N2 (unstable) (stable) (stable) O O N O O N O O N C C O O N C C C C O O N C C O O N O O N O O N

  16. Inorganic explosives • How do we get to the next level? • Introduce new atoms!

  17. Thermite reaction • 2 Al + Fe2O3 Al2O3 + 2 Fe (unstable) (moderate) (stable) (moderate)

  18. The Elements by Tom Lehrer There's antimony, arsenic, aluminum, selenium, And hydrogen and oxygen and nitrogen and rhenium,And nickel, neodymium, neptunium, germanium,And iron, americium, ruthenium, uranium,Europium, zirconium, lutetium, vanadium,And lanthanum and osmium and astatine and radium,And gold and protactinium and indium and gallium,And iodine and thorium and thulium and thallium.There's yttrium, ytterbium, actinium, rubidium,And boron, gadolinium, niobium, iridium,And strontium and silicon and silver and samarium,And bismuth, bromine, lithium, beryllium, and barium.There's holmium and helium and hafnium and erbium,And phosphorus and francium and fluorine and terbium,And manganese and mercury, molybdenum, magnesium,Dysprosium and scandium and cerium and cesium.And lead, praseodymium, and platinum, plutonium,Palladium, promethium, potassium, polonium,And tantalum, technetium, titanium, tellurium,And cadmium and calcium and chromium and curium.There's sulfur, californium, and fermium, berkelium,And also mendelevium, einsteinium, nobelium,And argon, krypton, neon, radon, xenon, zinc, and rhodium,And chlorine, carbon, cobalt, copper, tungsten, tin, and sodium.

  19. Electrical energy from inorganics – The Battery • PbO2 + Pb + H2SO4  2 Pb(SO4) + 2 H2O unstable unstable(spectator) stablestable • Pb4+ + Pb0 2 Pb2+ (stable) (stable) (unstable) 2 e- Pb2+ Pb2+

  20. The Hydrogen Fuel Cell • 2 H2 + O2 H2O (unstable) (unstable) (stable) e-e- e-e- H2O H2O O H+ H+ H H H+ H+ H H O