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10 Th Convegno New findings in equine practice. Druento (TO), 31 Ottobre/1 Novembre 2008. UNIVERSITY OF THE STUDY OF MOLISE. Department of Animal, Vegetables and Enviromental Sciences. Effects of two tame systems on physiological parameters of Arab horses subjected to load in the trailer.

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10 ThConvegno New findings in equine practice

Druento (TO), 31 Ottobre/1 Novembre 2008


Department of Animal, Vegetables and Enviromental Sciences

Effects of two tame systems on physiological parameters of Arab horses subjected to load in the trailer

D. Casamassima, M.Palazzo, T. Presutti, R. Pizzo, M. Cinone

“… many people observe,but few people see”.

Monty Roberts


Evaluate some blood and physiological parameters in Arab horses tested to load in the trailer and subjected to training techniques of traditional type and natural type of Pat Parelli with horseman program’s method.

The main methods of tame are:

the traditional tame

the natural tame

Natural tame represents a new method of not violent communication with the horse that recognizes how to it must be granted the freedom of joining up or not.

The different learning methods include the use of

Positive reinforcement

Negative reinforcement

Lateral hypothalamus

Septum and medial bundle of anterior brain

Reticular formation of the trunk of encephalousPeriventricular area of mid-brain Periduttale area of mid-brain

Medial bundle of the proencephalous


Positive reinforcement

Periventricular system


Negative reinforcement

Natural Horse-Man-Ship (Pat Parelli)

Friendly game

Yo-yo game

In natural tame fundamental concept is to create a relation based on the confidence.

Between different type of natural tame we report::

Join up ( Monty Roberts)

1 - Phase of preliminary knowledge

2 - Phase of predatory stimulus with flight (negative reinforcement)

3 - Phase of submission with docility (positive reinforcement)

Materials and methods

The text, of the duration of 7 days, has been lead near the Horse Center of Montaratro, Lucera (FG), on 15 horses of Arabic race of the age of 4-6 years and 400±20 Kg b.w. subdivided in 2 homogenous groups.

The constituted groups have been therefore characterize to you:

Control group 9 subjects trains with tecniques of traditional type

Experimental group 6 subjects trains with the method of horseman’s program

Every horse of every group has been made to go up on a trailer in order to estimate the effect of 2 methods of dome on the income difficulty on means through the answer of some consequent physiological and metabolic parameters to the treatment to which the animals came subordinates.

Materials and methods

To such aim the horses of every group have been subordinates, for three consecutive days, to blood abstractions and to relief of rectal temperature, respiratory actions and heart-rate with the brought back cadence:

a) Blood abstractions

P1= relief in the early morning with animals at rest

P2= relief 15 min before going on the trailer

P3= just after going on the trailer

P4 and P5= relief 45 and 90 min, respectively, after the end of performance

To the aim to cancel the influence of the circadian rhythm of some parameters, first of all the cortisol that shows variable levels of secretion during the day, has been carried out the rotation of the horses as far as the order of beginning of blood abstractions secondexperimental scheme of Latin square.

Materials and methods

The blood, captured from jugular external vein with method Vacutainer, has been centrifuged for 15 min to 3000 rpm and on the serum have been determined the following parameters: glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, NEFA, total proteins, albumin, urea, creatinine, CK, AST, ALT, sodium, potassium, ROMs, b-endorphin and cortisol; it has been also executed, on entire blood, hemocytometric examination with counts of red globules, white globules, Plt and determination of Hct value.

b) Physiological parameters

It has been moreover with the same carried out cadence the relief of respiratory actions, of the rectal temperature and of heart-rate antecedent to every blood abstraction.

Statistical analysis

Data were analyzed using ANOVA for repeated measures of SPSS (SPSS, 2006 Inc. Chicago, IL).

Differences among means were evaluated using the Scheffe’ s test.

Table 1. Some statistically significant physiological and blood parameters for every type of tame

In the same raw, means followed by different letters are significantly different at P<0.05 (a,b,c)

Table 2. Some physiological parameters between tames in Arabhorses

In the same raw, means followed by different letters are significantly different at P<0.05 (a,b)

TT = traditional tame; NT = natural tame; RF = respiratory frequency


In the subjects of traditional tame significant differences have been in glucose, NEFA, ROMs, cortisol, RBC, HGB, HCT and respiratory frequency .

In the horses of natural tame, instead, significant changes have been only in glucose and ROMs.

From our results we can conclude that in loading operations on trailer it’s more convenient to use the natural tame than traditional as, minimizing the physical stress, also positively influence the welfare of horses.

Thank you for attention


Al cavallo sazio sembra amara l'erba.Cavallo montato,moglie da montare.

Doma presto ed usa tardi.Misero il cavallo che non ha padrone.Caval che si duole,il maniscalco vuole.Dodici galline ed un gallo, mangian quanto un cavallo.Cavallo che inciampa e non cade,è buon segnale.Cavallo che mangia,paga.A cavalier novizio, cavallo senza vizio.Quando i cavalli ruzzano, il padrone stenta.Non è sì melanconico cavallo che al veder la biada non si rallegri.Si frusta sempre il cavallo che tira.Il caval che dura la pena, mangiar deve l'avena.