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LAGUNA and Neutrino Physics. NOW 2008 Lothar Oberauer TU München, Germany. LAGUNA Physics. L arge A pparatus for G rand U nification and N eutrino A strophysics Proton Decay Neutrinos as probes Supernova neutrinos Solar neutrinos Geoneutrinos Neutrino properties.

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laguna and neutrino physics

LAGUNA and Neutrino Physics

NOW 2008

Lothar Oberauer

TU München, Germany

laguna physics
LAGUNA Physics
  • Large Apparatus for Grand Unification and Neutrino Astrophysics
  • Proton Decay
  • Neutrinos as probes

Supernova neutrinos

Solar neutrinos


  • Neutrino properties
laguna physics1
LAGUNA Physics
  • Detecting proton decay implies de facto discovery of Grand Unification (GU)
  • GU: new symmetry between quarks and leptons
  • GU: guide of fermion masses and mixing
  • GU: one motivation for SUSY => LSP is Dark Matter candidate
  • GU: motivation for See-Saw => small n masses
laguna physics2
LAGUNA Physics
  • Galactic Supernova neutrino burst

understanding of gravitational collapse

neutrino properties: Q13 and mass hierarchy

mass effects on flavor transitions within the supernova and when passing through the Earth

early alert for astronomers

Black Hole formation?

  • Diffuse Supernova neutrinos

link to supernova rates => star formation rate; probing models of gravitational collapse

laguna physics3
LAGUNA Physics
  • Solar neutrinos

Search for small flux variations in time

Precise measurements of thermo nuclear fusion reactions

measurement of inner solar metallicity (CNO neutrinos at high statistics)

  • Neutrino beams

Search for Q13

Search for leptonic CP-violation (if Q13is not to small)

laguna physics4
LAGUNA Physics
  • Complementary to LHC and planned ILC goals

LHC: Higgs mechanism, SUSY, Rare decays

LAGUNA: Proton decay, neutrino astronomy, CP violation in leptons

  • European ApPEC roadmap recommendation:

We recommend that anew large European infrastructureis put forward, as a

futureinternational multi-purpose facility on the 105-106 ton scalefor improved

studies of

proton decayand of

low-energy neutrinos from astrophysical origin

laguna structure and aims
LAGUNA structure and aims
  • Proposed and accepted in the ApPEC meeting at Munich in November 2005
  • Investigate common R&D requirements
  • Coherent work on common problems
  • Take advantage of acquired technological know-how in Europe
  • Kick-off meeting at ETH Zurich 3-4 July 07
  • Mature design and proposals should emerge in 2010
laguna financial situation
LAGUNA financial situation
  • Design Study for future European observatory
  • Volume of proposal 5 M€
  • Approved as a whole by the European Commission (EC)
  • Funding: 1.7 M€
  • Focus on the part of the programme which cannot be performed on a national (regional) basis
  • Underground Sites infrastructure studies
  • 2008 until 2010
laguna collaboration1
LAGUNA Collaboration

Consortium composed of 21 beneficiaries

9 university entities (ETHZ, U-Bern, U-Jyväskylä, U-OULU, TUM, UAM, UDUR, USFD, UA)

8 research organizations (CEA, IN2P3, MPG, IPJ PAN, KGHM CUPRUM, GSMiE PAN, LSC, IFIN-HH)

4 SMEs (Rockplan, Technodyne, AGT, Lombardi)

Additional university participants (IPJ Warsaw, U-Silesia, U-Wroclaw, U-Granada)

laguna detector types
LAGUNA Detector types
  • Mt Water Cherencov


  • 100kt Liquid Argon


  • 50kt liquid Scintillator






1 shaft = 215 kt

water target

Possible location: extension of Frejus laboratory

Ongoing R&D for single photo detection

Synergy with HK (Japan) and UNO (USA)

  • PROS

“Simple” Detector

Large and useful experiences (SuperK)


Huge amount of photo-sensors (>100,000)

Very large underground cavities


Imaging with SuperK water Cherenkov detector

glacier liquid argon scintillation and electron tpc
GLACIER: Liquid argon scintillation and electron TPC

φ≈70 m

h =20 m

Max drift length

Passive perlite insulation

  • Liquid Argon TPC
  • -> 10 to 100 kt target mass
  • Pioneering work in ICARUS R&D program
  • Two independent programs: GLACIER in Europe and LARTPC in USA
  • PROS

Brilliant energy and track resolution

Particle ID and separation

Basically background free for many applications


“complicated” detector technology

Huge number of channels (depending on position resolution)

Large span of the cavity

  • Low Energy Neutrino Astronomy
  • -> 50 kt target mass
  • R&D on liquid scintillators
  • BOREXINO successful in measuring solar neutrinos (7Be, 8B)
  • DOUBLE-CHOOZ in France
  • Hanohano project (10 kt at Hawai) in USA
  • PROS

Mature technology

Good energy and position resolution

Cavity, PMs electronics standard

(size like SuperK, also number of PMs)


Keep purity like BOREXINO but for 50 kt

(relevant for solar neutrino detection in the sub-MeV range)

sensitivities on proton decay
Sensitivities on Proton Decay
  • p -> p0e+

Water Cherenkov MEMPHIS ca. 1035 y (5000 kt y exposure)

Limit SK-I and II: t > 8.4 x1033y

  • p -> K+n

Liquid Argon GLACIER ca. 1035 y (1000 kt y exposure)

Liquid Scintillator LENA ca. 5 x 1034 y (500 kt y exposure)

Limit SK-I: t > 2.3 x1032y

sensitivity on supernova n
Sensitivity on Supernova n

MEMPHIS mainly sensitive on ne

Approx. rate for 1 Mt:

~ 40 events @ 1 Mpc

Prop. < 10% per year

~ 4 events @ 3.3 Mpc

Prop. ~ 15% per year

~ 0.4 events @ 10 Mpc

Prop. ~ 80% per year

sensitivity on supernova n1
Sensitivity on Supernova n

Sensitive on ne !

Important for neutronisation phase

Sensitive on oscillation parameter and mass hierarchy

dsnb detection via inverse beta decay
DSNB Detection via inverse beta decay
  • Free protons as target

Delayed signal (~200 ms)

  • Threshold 1.8 MeV
  • En ~ Ee - Q (n spectroscopy)
  • suppress background via delayed coincidence method
  • n + p -> D + g(2.2 MeV)
  • position reconstruction => fiducial volume (suppress external background)

Prompt signal

lena at pyh salmi finland

OutlineDSNB BackgroundEvent Rates Spectroscopy

dependent on SN model(assumed fSN=2.5)

LL: 113KRJ: 100TBP: 60

dependent on SNR

fSN=0.7 17fSN=2.5 100fSN=4.2 220

TU München

LENA at Pyhäsalmi(Finland)

DSN event rate in 10yrsinside the energy window from 9.7 to 25 MeV

~25% of events are due to v’soriginating from SN @ z>1!

background events: 13

solar neutrinos
Solar Neutrinos
  • 8B neutrinos: MEMPHIS, GLACIER, LENA
  • CNO and pep: LENA (~ 300 / d)
  • 7Be: LENA (~ 6000/ d)
  • Precise measurement of LMA prediction
  • Accurate measurement of inner solar metallicity
  • Search for small flux variations
geo neutrinos
GEO Neutrinos
  • LENA

rate between 3 x 102 and 3 x 103per year (at Pyhäsalmi, Finland)

Background ~ 240 per year in [1.8 MeV – 3.2 MeV] from reactor neutrinos

< 30 per year due to 210Po alpha-n reaction on 13C (Borexino purity assumed)

~ 1 per year due to cosmogenic background

(9Li - beta-neutron cascade)

Can be statistically subtracted

long baseline oscillations
Long baseline oscillations

Q13 dCPsign(DM2)

nm -> nene-> nm

New neutrino source. “Betabeams, nu-factory”

Time scale ~ 2020 (?)

High Intensity conventional neutrino source.


Time scale > 2014 (?)




Polkowice-Sieroszowice, Poland





Laboratoire Souterrain

de Modane, France

Institute of Underground

Science in Boulby mine, UK

Laboratorio Subterraneo

de Canfranc, Spain

Laboratori Nazionali del

Gran Sasso, Italy

L=1050 km

L=630 km

L=732 km

L=130 km

long baseline oscillations1
Long baseline oscillations

Study J-Parc -> Okinoshima

Distance 653 km

Power 1.66 MW

Measurement 5 years


Similar results for ~ 300 kt Water Cherenkov (fiducial mass)

lena and reactor neutrinos
LENA and Reactor neutrinos
  • At Frejus ~ 17,000 events per year
  • High precision on solar oscillation parameter:
  • Dm212~ 1%
  • Q12 ~ 10%

S.T. Petcov, T. Schwetz, Phys. Lett. B 642, (2006), 487

J. Kopp et al., JHEP 01 (2007), 053

lena and indirect dark matter search
LENA and indirect Dark Matter search
  • Light Wimp mass between 10 and 100 MeV
  • Annihilation under neutrino emission in the Sun
  • Monoenergetic electron-antineutrino detection in LENA

S. Palomares-Ruiz, S. Pascoli, Phys. Rev. D 77, 025025 (2008)

  • LAGUNA started July 2008
  • Physics program aims on GUT (p-decay), LE n astrophysics, n oscillations
  • High discovery potential
  • Site studies for 7 candidates until 2010
  • LAGUNA is European but open for world wide cooperation