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LAGUNA and Neutrino Physics. NOW 2008 Lothar Oberauer TU München, Germany. LAGUNA Physics. L arge A pparatus for G rand U nification and N eutrino A strophysics Proton Decay Neutrinos as probes Supernova neutrinos Solar neutrinos Geoneutrinos Neutrino properties.

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laguna and neutrino physics

LAGUNA and Neutrino Physics

NOW 2008

Lothar Oberauer

TU München, Germany

laguna physics
LAGUNA Physics
  • Large Apparatus for Grand Unification and Neutrino Astrophysics
  • Proton Decay
  • Neutrinos as probes

Supernova neutrinos

Solar neutrinos

Geoneutrinos

  • Neutrino properties
laguna physics1
LAGUNA Physics
  • Detecting proton decay implies de facto discovery of Grand Unification (GU)
  • GU: new symmetry between quarks and leptons
  • GU: guide of fermion masses and mixing
  • GU: one motivation for SUSY => LSP is Dark Matter candidate
  • GU: motivation for See-Saw => small n masses
laguna physics2
LAGUNA Physics
  • Galactic Supernova neutrino burst

understanding of gravitational collapse

neutrino properties: Q13 and mass hierarchy

mass effects on flavor transitions within the supernova and when passing through the Earth

early alert for astronomers

Black Hole formation?

  • Diffuse Supernova neutrinos

link to supernova rates => star formation rate; probing models of gravitational collapse

laguna physics3
LAGUNA Physics
  • Solar neutrinos

Search for small flux variations in time

Precise measurements of thermo nuclear fusion reactions

measurement of inner solar metallicity (CNO neutrinos at high statistics)

  • Neutrino beams

Search for Q13

Search for leptonic CP-violation (if Q13is not to small)

laguna physics4
LAGUNA Physics
  • Complementary to LHC and planned ILC goals

LHC: Higgs mechanism, SUSY, Rare decays

LAGUNA: Proton decay, neutrino astronomy, CP violation in leptons

laguna
LAGUNA
  • European ApPEC roadmap recommendation:

We recommend that anew large European infrastructureis put forward, as a

futureinternational multi-purpose facility on the 105-106 ton scalefor improved

studies of

proton decayand of

low-energy neutrinos from astrophysical origin

laguna structure and aims
LAGUNA structure and aims
  • Proposed and accepted in the ApPEC meeting at Munich in November 2005
  • Investigate common R&D requirements
  • Coherent work on common problems
  • Take advantage of acquired technological know-how in Europe
  • Kick-off meeting at ETH Zurich 3-4 July 07
  • Mature design and proposals should emerge in 2010
laguna financial situation
LAGUNA financial situation
  • Design Study for future European observatory
  • Volume of proposal 5 M€
  • Approved as a whole by the European Commission (EC)
  • Funding: 1.7 M€
  • Focus on the part of the programme which cannot be performed on a national (regional) basis
  • Underground Sites infrastructure studies
  • 2008 until 2010
laguna collaboration1
LAGUNA Collaboration

Consortium composed of 21 beneficiaries

9 university entities (ETHZ, U-Bern, U-Jyväskylä, U-OULU, TUM, UAM, UDUR, USFD, UA)

8 research organizations (CEA, IN2P3, MPG, IPJ PAN, KGHM CUPRUM, GSMiE PAN, LSC, IFIN-HH)

4 SMEs (Rockplan, Technodyne, AGT, Lombardi)

Additional university participants (IPJ Warsaw, U-Silesia, U-Wroclaw, U-Granada)

laguna detector types
LAGUNA Detector types
  • Mt Water Cherencov

MEMPHIS

  • 100kt Liquid Argon

GLACIER

  • 50kt liquid Scintillator

LENA

memphis

MEMPHYS

TRE

MEMPHIS

1 shaft = 215 kt

water target

Possible location: extension of Frejus laboratory

Ongoing R&D for single photo detection

Synergy with HK (Japan) and UNO (USA)

memphis1
MEMPHIS
  • PROS

“Simple” Detector

Large and useful experiences (SuperK)

  • CHALLENGES

Huge amount of photo-sensors (>100,000)

Very large underground cavities

Costs?

Imaging with SuperK water Cherenkov detector

glacier liquid argon scintillation and electron tpc
GLACIER: Liquid argon scintillation and electron TPC

φ≈70 m

h =20 m

Max drift length

Passive perlite insulation

glacier
GLACIER
  • Liquid Argon TPC
  • -> 10 to 100 kt target mass
  • Pioneering work in ICARUS R&D program
  • Two independent programs: GLACIER in Europe and LARTPC in USA
glacier1
GLACIER
  • PROS

Brilliant energy and track resolution

Particle ID and separation

Basically background free for many applications

  • CHALLENGES

“complicated” detector technology

Huge number of channels (depending on position resolution)

Large span of the cavity

slide19
LENA
  • Low Energy Neutrino Astronomy
  • -> 50 kt target mass
  • R&D on liquid scintillators
  • BOREXINO successful in measuring solar neutrinos (7Be, 8B)
  • DOUBLE-CHOOZ in France
  • Hanohano project (10 kt at Hawai) in USA
slide20
LENA
  • PROS

Mature technology

Good energy and position resolution

Cavity, PMs electronics standard

(size like SuperK, also number of PMs)

  • CHALLENGES

Keep purity like BOREXINO but for 50 kt

(relevant for solar neutrino detection in the sub-MeV range)

sensitivities on proton decay
Sensitivities on Proton Decay
  • p -> p0e+

Water Cherenkov MEMPHIS ca. 1035 y (5000 kt y exposure)

Limit SK-I and II: t > 8.4 x1033y

  • p -> K+n

Liquid Argon GLACIER ca. 1035 y (1000 kt y exposure)

Liquid Scintillator LENA ca. 5 x 1034 y (500 kt y exposure)

Limit SK-I: t > 2.3 x1032y

sensitivity on supernova n
Sensitivity on Supernova n

MEMPHIS mainly sensitive on ne

Approx. rate for 1 Mt:

~ 40 events @ 1 Mpc

Prop. < 10% per year

~ 4 events @ 3.3 Mpc

Prop. ~ 15% per year

~ 0.4 events @ 10 Mpc

Prop. ~ 80% per year

sensitivity on supernova n1
Sensitivity on Supernova n

Sensitive on ne !

Important for neutronisation phase

Sensitive on oscillation parameter and mass hierarchy

dsnb detection via inverse beta decay
DSNB Detection via inverse beta decay
  • Free protons as target

Delayed signal (~200 ms)

  • Threshold 1.8 MeV
  • En ~ Ee - Q (n spectroscopy)
  • suppress background via delayed coincidence method
  • n + p -> D + g(2.2 MeV)
  • position reconstruction => fiducial volume (suppress external background)

Prompt signal

lena at pyh salmi finland

OutlineDSNB BackgroundEvent Rates Spectroscopy

dependent on SN model(assumed fSN=2.5)

LL: 113KRJ: 100TBP: 60

dependent on SNR

fSN=0.7 17fSN=2.5 100fSN=4.2 220

TU München

LENA at Pyhäsalmi(Finland)

DSN event rate in 10yrsinside the energy window from 9.7 to 25 MeV

~25% of events are due to v’soriginating from SN @ z>1!

background events: 13

solar neutrinos
Solar Neutrinos
  • 8B neutrinos: MEMPHIS, GLACIER, LENA
  • CNO and pep: LENA (~ 300 / d)
  • 7Be: LENA (~ 6000/ d)
  • Precise measurement of LMA prediction
  • Accurate measurement of inner solar metallicity
  • Search for small flux variations
geo neutrinos
GEO Neutrinos
  • LENA

rate between 3 x 102 and 3 x 103per year (at Pyhäsalmi, Finland)

Background ~ 240 per year in [1.8 MeV – 3.2 MeV] from reactor neutrinos

< 30 per year due to 210Po alpha-n reaction on 13C (Borexino purity assumed)

~ 1 per year due to cosmogenic background

(9Li - beta-neutron cascade)

Can be statistically subtracted

long baseline oscillations
Long baseline oscillations

Q13 dCPsign(DM2)

nm -> nene-> nm

New neutrino source. “Betabeams, nu-factory”

Time scale ~ 2020 (?)

High Intensity conventional neutrino source.

“Superbeams”

Time scale > 2014 (?)

slide31

LNGS

SUNLAB

Polkowice-Sieroszowice, Poland

L=2300

L=950

IUS

LSC

Laboratoire Souterrain

de Modane, France

Institute of Underground

Science in Boulby mine, UK

Laboratorio Subterraneo

de Canfranc, Spain

Laboratori Nazionali del

Gran Sasso, Italy

L=1050 km

L=630 km

L=732 km

L=130 km

long baseline oscillations1
Long baseline oscillations

Study J-Parc -> Okinoshima

Distance 653 km

Power 1.66 MW

Measurement 5 years

(arXiv:0804.2111)

Similar results for ~ 300 kt Water Cherenkov (fiducial mass)

lena and reactor neutrinos
LENA and Reactor neutrinos
  • At Frejus ~ 17,000 events per year
  • High precision on solar oscillation parameter:
  • Dm212~ 1%
  • Q12 ~ 10%

S.T. Petcov, T. Schwetz, Phys. Lett. B 642, (2006), 487

J. Kopp et al., JHEP 01 (2007), 053

lena and indirect dark matter search
LENA and indirect Dark Matter search
  • Light Wimp mass between 10 and 100 MeV
  • Annihilation under neutrino emission in the Sun
  • Monoenergetic electron-antineutrino detection in LENA

S. Palomares-Ruiz, S. Pascoli, Phys. Rev. D 77, 025025 (2008)

conclusions
Conclusions
  • LAGUNA started July 2008
  • Physics program aims on GUT (p-decay), LE n astrophysics, n oscillations
  • High discovery potential
  • Site studies for 7 candidates until 2010
  • LAGUNA is European but open for world wide cooperation