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Review of Assignment 3, Loose Ends, Web-based Data Collection. Michael A. Kohn, MD, MPP 3 February 2009. Outline. Assignment 3 Review Loose Ends: Yes/No Fields, BLOBs, Field Names, Front Ends, On-Screen Data Entry Conventions Web-based Data Entry Assignment 4. Housekeeping.

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review of assignment 3 loose ends web based data collection

Review of Assignment 3, Loose Ends, Web-based Data Collection

Michael A. Kohn, MD, MPP

3 February 2009

outline
Outline
  • Assignment 3 Review
  • Loose Ends: Yes/No Fields, BLOBs, Field Names, Front Ends, On-Screen Data Entry Conventions
  • Web-based Data Entry
  • Assignment 4
housekeeping
Housekeeping
  • Database demos with advice for Assignment 4: Tuesday 2/10
    • Carolyn Calfee
    • Janet Turan
    • Mary Farrant
  • Assignment 4 is due 2/16
  • Please try to return the Learn MS Access 2000 CD
assignment 3
Assignment 3

Lab 3: Exporting and Analyzing Data 1/27/2009

Determine if neonatal jaundice was associated with the 5-year IQ scores and create a table, figure, or paragraph appropriate for the “Results” section of a manuscript summarizing the association.

Extra Credit: Write a sentence or two for the “Methods” or “Results” section on inter-rater reliability. (Use Bland and Altman, BMJ 1996; 313:744)

answer
Answer

Of the infants with neonatal jaundice, 149 had IQ tests at age 5, and of the infants without neonatal jaundice, 248 had IQ tests. The mean (+SD) IQ score was significantly higher in the jaundice group, 111.5 +21.1, than in the no-jaundice group 101.4+20.5 -- difference 10.1 (95% CI 5.9 – 14.4).

slide9

Would you submit this for publication?

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

Group | Obs Mean Std. Err. Std. Dev. [95% Conf. Interval]

---------+--------------------------------------------------------------------

No | 248 101.3925 1.303441 20.52661 98.8252 103.9597

Yes | 149 111.5358 1.732576 21.14879 108.112 114.9596

---------+--------------------------------------------------------------------

combined | 397 105.1994 1.06956 21.31083 103.0967 107.3021

---------+--------------------------------------------------------------------

diff | -10.14332 2.152007 -14.37414 -5.912502

------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Degrees of freedom: 395

Ho: mean(No) - mean(Yes) = diff = 0

Ha: diff < 0 Ha: diff ~= 0 Ha: diff > 0

t = -4.7134 t = -4.7134 t = -4.7134

P < t = 0.0000 P > |t| = 0.0000 P > t = 1.0000

essential elements
Essential Elements
  • Sample size (149 jaundiced, 248 non-jaundiced)
  • Indication of effect size (report both means, or the difference between them)
  • Get direction of effect right (Jaundiced group did better!)
  • Indication of variability (Sample SDs, SEs of means, CIs of means, or CI of difference between means.)
browner on figures
Browner on Figures

Figures should have a minimum of four data points. A figure that shows that the rate of colon cancer is higher in men than in women, or that diabetes is more common in Hispanics than in whites or blacks, [or that jaundiced babies had higher IQs at age 5 years than non-jaundiced babies,] is not worth the ink required to print it. Use text instead.

Browner, WS. Publishing and Presenting Clinical Research; 1999; Williams and Wilkins. Pg. 90

browner on 3 d figures
Browner on 3-D Figures

Three dimensional graphs usually are not helpful.

Browner, WS. Publishing and Presenting Clinical Research; 1999; Williams and Wilkins. Pg. 97

Also, note that the 3-D is only an effect. The data are two dimensional (score by jaundice).

slide18

Figure 1: In 149 infants with neonatal jaundice, the average IQ scores were higher compared to the 248 non-jaundiced infants when evaluated at age 5 (p<0.0001).

box plot
Box Plot
  • Median Line
  • Box extends from 25th to 75th percentile
  • Whiskers to upper and lower adjacent values
  • Adjacent value = 75th /25th percentile ±1.5 x IQR (interquartile range)
  • Values outside the adjacent values are graphed individually
  • Would be nice if area (or at least width) of box were proportional to sample size (N). In some box plots the width of the box is proportional to log N, but not in Stata.
extra credit
Extra Credit

Extra Credit

  • Report within-subject SD (4.0) as a measure of reliability.
  • Calculate repeatability (11.0)
  • Bland-Altman plot with mean difference and 95% limits of agreement*

* Nobody did this.

methods or results
Methods or Results?

We assessed inter-rater reliability of the IQ test by having different examiners re-test 198 of the children. The within-subject standard deviation was 4.0, so the “repeatability” was 11.0, meaning that two examiners of the same subject would score within 11 points of each other 95 percent of the time. (Bland and Altman, BMJ 1996; 313:744)

slide23

N = 142 (children examined by both Satcher and Richmond)

Mean Difference = 0.49 (95% CI -0.41 – 1.38)

95% Limits of Agreement: -10.272 – 11.244

outline1
Outline
  • DONE Assignment 3 Review
  • Loose Ends: Yes/No Fields, BLOBs, Field Names, Front Ends, On-Screen Data Entry Conventions
  • Web-based Data Entry
  • Assignment 4
loose ends
Loose Ends
  • Yes/No Fields
  • BLOBs
  • Field Names
  • “Front End” vs. “Back End”
  • On-Screen Data Entry Conventions
yes no fields
Yes/No fields
  • Binary fields are not very useful, because you can’t distinguish “No” from blank (not valued).
  • I create a combo box like we used for Race in Lab 1 with 0 for “No” and 1 for “Yes”. This allows blank.

Demonstrate with “Subject” table/form, Latino and Jaundice fields.

demonstration blob
Demonstration (BLOB)

Field types are not limited to numbers, text, dates. You can put an “object”, such as a Word document or a photo, in a field

Memo fields in the Infant Jaundice Database

Word Document Fields on the “Class” form of the ATCR Student Database

Photograph fields in the ATCR Student Database

slide28

Field Names

Establish and follow naming conventions for columns and tables.

Short field names without spaces or underscores are convenient for programming, querying, and other manipulations. Instead of spaces or underscores, use “IntraCaps” (upper case letters within the variable name) to distinguish words, e.g. “SubjectID”, “FName”, or “ExamDate”. Table names should be singular, e.g. “Subject” instead of “Subjects”, “Exam” instead of “Exams”.

front end vs back end
“Front End” vs. “Back End”

“Back End” – Tables and Data

“Front End” – Forms and reports for entering and viewing the data

Access database that you have been using combines “back end” (tables and relationships) with “front end” (forms and reports).*

*Even if both are in Access, you usually want to split the front end from the back end.

QuesGen uses MySQL for the back end.

start with data tables or data collection forms
Start with Data Tables or Data Collection Forms?

It doesn’t matter as long as the process is iterative.

Can start with the tables and then develop the forms, test the forms, find problems, and update the tables.

Can start with a word-processed form, create the tables, test, and update.*

*This seems to work better for most investigators

slide31

Sometimes it helps to start with the data collection forms, but remember, you do NOT need one table per data collection form. In the labs you learned that one form can combine data from several tables. And data from one table can appear on several forms.

before seeking help with data management
Before seeking help with data management

Search the internet and ask other researchers for already developed data collection forms.

Draft your data collection form.

Test your data collection form with dummy subjects and, even better, with real (de-identified) study subjects.

Enter your test data into a data table with rows corresponding to subjects and columns corresponding to data elements. (Use Excel, Access, Stata, or even Word.)

Create or at least think about a data dictionary.

Decide who will collect the data, and when/how the data will be collected.

common sequence
Common Sequence
  • Develop data collection forms in Word
  • Create Excel spreadsheets to store the data (one column per field/attribute, one row per record/entity)
  • Move from Excel to Access because of need for one of more of:
    • data entry forms (front end),
    • multiple related tables,
    • queries using the Access query design tool
  • Move from Access to QuesGen because of need for web-based data entry, hosting, auditing, richer user administration and security, but continue to use Access for querying of data extracts to filter, sort, format, and generate derived fields.
  • Export to Stata for analysis.
on screen data collection forms
On-Screen Data Collection Forms
  • Will demonstrate using the “race” field from the Infant Jaundice Study
  • Free text versus coded response
  • Single response (mutually exclusive choices) versus “all that apply”
free text vs coded responses
Free Text vs. Coded Responses

Same as “Open-Ended” vs. “Closed-Ended” Questions

Free text responses useful in developing coded response options.

mutually exclusive collectively exhaustive response options
Mutually Exclusive, Collectively Exhaustive Response Options
  • One field (=column)
  • Can always make responses exhaustive by including an “Other” response
  • Drop down list (combo box) vs. pick list (field list) vs. option group
drop down list combo box
Drop-down List (Combo Box)
  • Saves screen real estate
  • Doesn’t work on paper forms

(Master form)

pick list field list
Pick List (Field List)
  • Uses up screen real estate
  • Useful on paper forms

(MasterRaceAsFieldList form)

option group
Option Group
  • Radio buttons (by convention)
  • Uses up screen real estate

(MasterRaceAsOptionGroup form)

all that apply
“All that apply”

Multiple fields (= columns)

Use check boxes (by convention)

(MasterRaceAsAllThatApply form)

from paper data forms to data table s
From Paper Data Forms to Data Table(s)*
  • Transcription directly into the table(s)
  • Transcription via an online (screen) form
  • Scanning using OMR software

*Best option: Don’t use paper data collection forms at all.

slide49

On-Screen* vs. Paper Forms

Enter data directly into the computer database or move data from paper forms into the computer database as close to the data collection time as possible.

When you define a variable in a computer database, you specify both its format and its domain or range of allowed values. Using these format and domain specifications, computer data entry forms give immediate feedback about improper formats and values that are out of range. The best time to receive this feedback is when the study subject is still on site.

*Using on-screen forms is sometimes called EDC for Electronic Data Capture

on screen vs paper forms
On-screen vs. paper forms

You can always print out a paper copy of the screen form or a report of the exam/interview results once the data are collected.

Examples: ATM Machine’s printed transaction record, Gas Station’s printed receipt

what have you learned
What Have You Learned?
  • The meaning and importance of the terms “normalization”, “primary key”, and “foreign key”.
  • The difference between a flat-file database, and a normalized, multi-table relational database.
  • A little bit of Microsoft Access
  • Querying data
  • Exporting data for analysis in a statistical package
  • Field types
  • “Front End” (forms) vs. “Back End” (tables)
four types of research database
Four Types of Research Database
  • Combination of paper files, Excel spreadsheets, and direct keyboard entry into the statistical analysis package.*
  • Desktop multi-table relational database.**
  • Client-Server or “Enterprise” multi-table relational database.***
  • Web-Enabled Research Platform.**

*Can do yourself

** Might be able to do yourself

***Definitely need to get help

four types of research database1
Four Types of Research Database
  • Combination of paper files, Excel spreadsheets, and direct keyboard entry into the statistical analysis package.*
  • Desktop multi-table relational database.**
  • Client-Server or “Enterprise” multi-table relational database.***
  • Web-Enabled Research Platform.**

*Can do yourself

** Might be able to do yourself

***Definitely need to get help

web enabled research platform
Web-Enabled Research Platform
  • Browser based entry from anyplace with an internet connection.
  • Enterprise database back end
  • Available as a hosted service
web based data collection platforms
Web-based Data Collection Platforms
  • Vendor Hosted
    • SurveyMonkey
    • QuesGen
    • Medrio
  • Not Vendor Hosted
    • Velos
    • LabMatrix
    • RedCap
    • OpenClinica
  • Not Discussed Here
    • Phase Forward
    • Oracle Clinical
advantages of being web based
Advantages of Being Web-Based
  • Available anywhere with an internet connection
  • No software requirement beyond a browser
  • Easy to share data
disadvantages of being web based
Disadvantages of Being Web-based
  • Limited look-and-feel options on forms (In contrast, Access forms are highly customizable.)
  • Limited data structures
  • Requires an internet connection
advantages of being hosted
Advantages of Being Hosted
  • No need for servers, system administrators, etc.
disadvantages of being hosted
Disadvantages of Being Hosted
  • Patient confidentiality/HIPAA issues
  • Auditing (CFR 21 Part 11– Electronic record-keeping requirements of the FDA)

(Except for SurveyMonkey, the web-based data collection systems CLAIM to handle these issues and requirements)

(Access databases and SurveyMonkey can meet patient confidentiality requirements but not CFR 21 Part 11)

surveymonkey demo
SurveyMonkey Demo
  • Enter Helen’s exam
  • Show SF-36 (Time Permitting)
surveymonkey advantages
SurveyMonkey Advantages
  • Beautiful forms
  • Simple to create
  • Hosted
  • Inexpensive
  • Great for surveys
surveymonkey disadvantages
SurveyMonkey Disadvantages
  • Market-research oriented, not medical
  • Flat file
  • No audit trail
  • Limited user roles, security
  • Not designed for PHI/HIPAA compliance
  • Limited skip logic
surveymonkey disadvantages1
SurveyMonkey Disadvantages

Can’t upload data

  • Cannot import Baby2007.xls file as in Lab 2
  • Have to key data in

No subject or exam list

Have to browse through the surveys to find the one you want.

No calculations

e.g., BMI

quesgen demo1
QuesGen Demo

Enter Robert’s data

Show populated database

Data extract/Access Query/Stata

advantages of quesgen
Advantages of QuesGen
  • Multiple user roles (DB admin, team member, view-only, site-specific)
  • PHI fields explicitly identified (masked from user without PHI privileges)
  • UCSF IT reviewed
  • Easy to add/change/format fields
  • Templates for clinical research (medication, lab sample, etc) and systematic reviews (publication)
  • Inexpensive
disadvantages of quesgen
Disadvantages of QuesGen
  • Same as other web-based platforms
    • Limited look-and-feel options
    • Requires network connection
data management protocol
Data Management Protocol
  • General description of database
  • Data collection and entry
  • Error checking and data validation
  • Analysis (e.g., export to Stata)
  • Security/confidentiality
  • Back up
general description of database
General Description of Database
  • DBMS, e.g. MS Access XP
  • # of dynamic tables
  • # of static “lookup” tables
  • # of forms
  • # of reports

An appendix could include the relationships diagram, the table names and descriptions, and the field names and descriptions (data dictionary). Print relationships diagram using either “Print Relationships” or taking a screen shot.

data collection and entry
Data Collection and Entry
  • Import baseline data from existing systems
  • Import lab results, scan results (e.g. DEXA), holter monitor data, and other digital data.
  • For each form, who will collect the data?
  • Collect onto paper forms and then transcribe? Enter directly using screen forms? Scannable forms?
error checking and validation
Error Checking and Validation
  • Database automatically checks data against the range of allowed values.
  • Periodic outlier detection. (Outliers still within the range of allowed values.)
  • Calculation checks
  • Is double data entry really needed ?
analysis
Analysis
  • How will you get the data out of the database?
security confidentiality
Security/Confidentiality
  • Keep identifying data (name, SSN, MRN) in a separate table.
  • Link rest of DB to this table via a Subject ID that has no meaning external to the DB.
  • Restrict access to identifying data.
  • Password protect at both OS and application levels.
  • Audit entries and updates.
back ups
Back ups
  • Ask your system person to restore a file periodically. This tests both the back-up and restore systems.
assignment 4
Assignment 4

Data Management Protocol

Write a one-page data management section for your research study protocol or a one-page description of your current research study database.

At the beginning of your assignment, for the readers, briefly describe your study, including design, predictors, outcomes, target population, and sample size. (1 or 2 sentences)

Include with your assignment a relationships diagram showing the structure of your study database.

Send assignment to ucsfdbclass@yahoo.com by 2/16/2009.

assignment 41
Assignment 4

Due 2/19/08, send to ucsfdbclass@yahoo.com

Write a one-page data management section for your research study protocol or a one-page description of your current research study database.

At the beginning of your assignment, for the readers, briefly describe your study, including design, predictors, outcomes, target population, and sample size. (1 or 2 sentences).

Optionally, include with your assignment a relationships diagram* showing the structure of your study database.

The elements of a data management protocol or database description were covered in the 2/5/08 lecture and include:

General description of database (possibly including a relationships diagram*)

Data collection and entry

Error checking and data validation

Analysis/Reporting (e.g., export to Stata)

Security/confidentiality

Administration/Back up

Extra Credit: Include a budget or cost estimate for data management.

*Relationships diagram is optional

assignment 42
Assignment 4

1) What is your study?  ("The [CUTE ACRONYM] study is a [DESIGN] study of the associations between [PREDICTOR] and [OUTCOME] in [STUDY POPULATION]").

2) What data points are you collecting?  (Helps to have an actual data collection form mocked up in Word or Access.)

3) Who will collect the data? You?  RAs?  MDs?  Maybe the study subjects will enter the data themselves.

assignment 4 cont d
Assignment 4 (cont’d)

4) How will the data be collected? Written onto a paper form and then transcribed into a computer file?  Entered directly into the computer?  (If it's going to be transcribed, will you be doing that? Will you hire somebody? Or will you enlist some med students?)

5) Will the above-mentioned computer file be an Excel file, Stata file, Access file, or something else? 

6) If it's a single table database (e.g., Excel or Stata), what will the rows represent, what will the columns be?  Try to provide a detailed data dictionary with the name, data type, description, and validation rules for each field (column) in the single table.

assignment 43
Assignment 4

7) If it's a multi-table database, even a hand-drawn relationships diagram would help but is not required.

8) How will you validate the data for correctness and monitor the data collection effort?  (Usually you have some range checks on individual variables and you periodically query for outliers that are nonetheless within the allowed range.)

9) You should periodically analyze the data, not only to look for problems, but also to see where the study is headed.  How will you do this?  Query in Access and export to Stata?

10) How will you protect your subjects' identifying data?

11) How will you ensure that you don't lose your data file in a computer crash or if a water pipe leaks?