SUMMER TRAINING REPORT Held At BSNL. INDEX. 1. COMPANY PROFILE 2. INTRODUCTION 3. ABOUT THE EXCHANGE 4. MDF >TYPES OF FAULTS >PROTECTIVE DEVICES 5. OCB 6. GSM 7. MEDIA 8. PROCEDURE FOR HANDLING COMPLAINTS. INTRODUCTION.
1. COMPANY PROFILE
3. ABOUT THE EXCHANGE
>TYPES OF FAULTS
8. PROCEDURE FOR HANDLING COMPLAINTS
Today, BSNL is the No. 1 telecommunication company and the largest public sector undertaking of India and its responsibilities includes improvement of the already impeccable quality of telecom services, expansion of telecom services in all villages and instilling confidence among its customers.
Equipment which effects interconnected of telephones is known as switching equipment.
The switching centre, which houses the terminating and switching equipment is called telephone exchange.
Typical exchange consist of :
Operations and Maintenance (OMC) Room
Input Output processor (IOP) Room
Power Plant Room
Main Distribution Frame (MDF) Room
1. All telephone subscribers are served by automatic exchanges.
2. Today’s automatic exchanges uses a pair of computers.
One, running the program that provides services.
Second, monitoring the operation of the first, ready to take over in a few seconds in the event of equipment failure.Various exchanges present in BSNL are:> C-DOT> OCB> EWSD
- MDF means Main Distribution Frame. Local cable contact at MDF .
- All types of cables out to the door contact connection at MDF .
The main parts of the power room are:1. Batteries2. UPS (Uninterrupted Power Supply) 3. Charging - Discharging Unit4. Inverter and Converter Unit:
POWER PLANT :
MAIN DISTRIBUTION FRAME
> The primary function of MDF is to remove fault. It is also known as Fault Remove Section.
> The telephone numbers are also disconnected in the MDF because of some specific reason.
RACK: -On the rack, the tags are situated. One rack is having eight tags. The counting is done from up (0) to down (7).TAGS: -Each rack consists of eight tags.1 tag = 4 core1 core = 4 bunch1 bunch = 2 lineN.E.:-The word NE stands for the ‘NUMBER OF EQUIPMENT’.
It is used for testing number and
WEDGE: Wedge is used as a device for checking the ring. Wedge is placed in jack strips, which is connected to telephone for checking.
Main distribution frame is mainly divided in two parts.
(1) Vertical Side or Line side.
(2) LEN side or Exchange side.
All the part from vertical side to the subscriber are generally called outdoor section.:
1. One vertical has 10 tag blocks.
2. Each tag block has 10 rows and each row has 10 tags. So each tag block has 100 tags.
3. Connection between vertical side & subscribers are provided by jelly filled cables.
4. These wires are first terminated in cabinet box, then according to requirements the group of the wires (e.g. 200 wires, 100 wires etc.) is terminated in pillar box
LEN SIDE:• All the parts from LEN to the exchange is called indoor section.
• The connection of subscriber from exchange is terminated on this side of MDF.
• In 1 tag block there are 128 tags. Each tag block is divided in 4 segments. That is 0, 1,2 & 3 and in each segments.
.DIFFERENT TYPES OF FAULTS:- LOOP FAULT:-If two wires are joined together because of improper connection,storming air etc. EARTH FAULT:-If two wires get scrape at some places and if this wire comes incontact with tree, pillar or any metal objects then this type of fault occurs.CABLE FAULT:-For outdoor connections, jelly filled wires are used which are affected by natural causes such as rain, earthquake etc. At such time this fault occurs.DISCONNECT FAULT:-This type of fault occurs due to the breaking of wires between the vertical side & LEN side.
The new switching systems are based on Stored Program Control concept. The call processing programmers are distributed over different control organs of the system and are stored in ROM/RAM of the units Processor in the control units .
Global system for mobile communication (GSM) is a globally accepted standard for digital cellular communication. GSM is the name of a standardization group established in 1982 to create a common European mobile telephone standard
GSM is a cellular network which means that mobile phones connect to it by searching for cells in the immediate vicinity.GSM operates in the 900 MHz frequency band.
This system structured hierarchically as shown:
Case-II Quit a few numbers of telephone reported dead:
> PERMANENT RING > PERMANENT DIAL TONE> PERMANENT BUSY TONE> PERMANENT RING – TRIP > SPEECH QUALITY POOR > WRONG NUMBERS > ONE WAY SPEECH > RINGER CADENCE