Climate Corps Bay Area 2012 Training. Day 3. Recap. Questions from yesterday Logistics for today. Energy Concepts. Kif Scheuer. What is Energy?. The capacity to do work comes in many forms To do work energy converts from one form to another. How Hard Does Kif Work?.
Recap Questions from yesterday Logistics for today
Energy Concepts KifScheuer
What is Energy? • The capacity to do work • comes in many forms • To do work energy converts from one form to another
How Hard Does Kif Work? • Kif climbs a ladder in 10 seconds. • Kif’s rate of work = 60kg * 1.5m * 10m/s^2 / 10s = 90 Watts 60 kg mass Three 30-watt light bulbs 1.5 m ladder ~10 m/s^2 gravitational acceleration
ENERGY VS. POWER • Watts (W) and kilowatts (kW) measure power, or the rate at which work is performed. • Watt-hours (Wh) and kilowatt-hours (kWh) measure energy, or the quantity of electricity used. • Demand is measured in watts, • Consumption is measured in watt hours.
Power Vs. Energy Power: 2.1 kW Watts Time Energy: ~12 kWh
Powerful Definitions • 1 Ampere – A charge carrying 6.2 x 10^18 electrons per second. • 1 Volt – The difference in electric potential across a wire when a current of one ampere dissipates one watt of power. • Watts = Volts x Amps
Ohm’s Law • V (voltage) = I (current) X R (resistance)
The Electricity Grid • Links power plants to load centers • Links transmission lines together • Power is ‘pooled’ in the transmission system, and each distribution system draws from the pool • ‘System’ has diversity of sources • 150 computerized control centers to dispatch generators as needed An electron is an electron!
Grid Efficiencies • Power Plants • Old Coal 35% • New Coal 60% • Wind 45% • Solar PV 15% • T&D • 6-8% loss • $20 billion/yr
Categories of Power Plants • Base-load Power plants – run all the time (nuclear) • Peaking power plants – run to meet peak loads (old coal or oil fired) • Intermediate power plants – meet constantly changing loads (Nat gas)
Power Mix • Renewable vs. Non-renewable power • Climate Neutral power
Consumption Source: U.S. EIA, Monthly Energy Review (March 2012)
Historical Trends Source: U.S. EIA, Annual Energy Review 2010
Historical Consumption Source: U.S. EIA, Annual Energy Review 2010
How to Read your Energy Bill • Electricity • Baseline Usage: $0.11 per kWh • Tier 1: 30% above Baseline, $0.13 per kWh • Tier 2: 70% above Baseline, $0.23 per kWh • Tier 3: 100% above Baseline, $0.31 per kWh • Tier 4: 300%+ above Baseline, $0.36 per kWh
Benefits of Energy Efficiency • Impacts from historical Investment in Energy Efficiency in California versus US as a whole
Energy in California – Efficiency and Renewables Robert Marciel PG&E Pacific Energy Center Christine Prestella Pacific Gas & Electric Government and Community Partnerships
Lunch 1 Hour
Energy Breakouts Basic Energy Audits Benchmarking Tools Solar Basics
Field Trip Transit Meeting location
Academy of Sciences • 55 Music Concourse Drive San Francisco, CA 94118 • We are driving a 15 person van and 1 minivan (holds 6). • If you want to leave from the Academy you can. • If you don’t travel with us meet up at the back of the building at 330.