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UNIT 3 - FORESTRY. TOPIC 5 – THE BOREAL FOREST . LOCATION. Boreal Forests are also known as TAIGA forests What portion of forests are BOREAL?

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unit 3 forestry

UNIT 3 - FORESTRY

TOPIC 5 – THE BOREAL FOREST

location
LOCATION
  • Boreal Forests are also known as TAIGA forests
  • What portion of forests are BOREAL?
    • Boreal forests are CIRCUMPOLAR, meaning they circle the earth, spanning the top of Northern Europe, North America, and Asia (Called the “great green scarf”the Earth)
    • 82 % of all Canadian Forests are boreal (Largest Canadian Biome)
    • 100 % of NL forests are boreal
climate
CLIMATE
  • Coldest biome on Earth other than the tundra
  • Latitude is 50-60 degrees north of equator
  • Long, cold winters lasting 5-6 months of the year
  • Short, warm summers
  • Precipitation is generally snow
  • Temperatures:
    • –50 0C to 300C throughout the year
    • average is less than 10 0C for eight or more months of the year
growth rate
GROWTH RATE
  • The Boreal forest is the SLOWEST GROWING FOREST on EARTH
  • WHY?
    • Shoot/root growth does not occur until temperature is high enough
    • Short Growing Season – 130 days
    • Low decomposition rate due to cold temperatures, so nutrient levels in soil are low
    • Extreme weather is common, killing buds and reducing growth
    • Cold snaps during growth season can reduce growth for the next season
soil conditions
SOIL CONDITIONS
  • SOIL is THIN(SHALLOW).
  • Soils is ACIDIC
    • Due to decomposing needles
  • Soil has LOW DRAINAGE
    • Evergreens provide permanent shade, so soil is often waterlogged as a result.
  • Soils is NUTRIENT-POOR
    • Decomposers are slower in cold, acidic soil
    • Waxy coating of evergreens makes for a slower decomposition rate
biodiversity
BIODIVERSITY
  • On a species level, it the LEAST BIODIVERSE of all forest types
  • Sometimes called the “spruce-moose” forest!
  • Why?
    • With colder temperatures, and slower decomposition rates, ENERGY AVAILABILITY IS LOW
  • Recall the FLORA means “plants” and FAUNA means “animals”
boreal forest flora
BOREAL FOREST FLORA
  • Boreal forests are mostly CONIFEROUS, with a smaller portion of DECIDUOUS TREES
  • Most common trees are coniferous softwoods BLACK SPRUCE and BALSAM FIR.
  • Other softwoods include Eastern larch and pine.
  • The smaller portion deciduous hardwoods include white birch and trembling aspen.
balsam fir
BALSAM FIR
  • Used in NL for pulp and lumber
  • Most abundant tree on the island, 2nd most abundant in Labrador
  • At maturity, about 12-15 m in height meters in height and 30-50 cm in diameter
  • Can reach ages of 70-100 yrs old
  • Favourite snack of MOOSE
  • Most common naturally disturbance is INSECT DAMAGE
  • Needles are flat (will not roll in fingers) and grow horizontally on twig
    • Memory Tool: Flat is Fir
black spruce
BLACK SPRUCE
  • Provincial tree of NL
  • Used in NL for pulpwood and for Christmas trees
  • Most abundant tree in Labrador, 2nd most common on island
  • At maturity, about 9-12 m in height and 15-30 cm in diameter
  • Can reach age of 200 years
  • Most common disturbance is FIRE, cones are adapted to survive fire
  • Needles are four-sided, will roll in fingers and are spirally arranged
  • The other common spruce in NL is white spruce.
eastern larch tamarack
EASTERN LARCH (TAMARACK)
  • Makes good posts and poles.
  • Many locals incorrectly call this tree a juniper in NL
  • It is an unusual conifer because it drops its needles in winter (deciduous conifer).
white birch
WHITE BIRCH
  • Most common birch in NL and most important HARDWOOD in NL
  • Also called the paper birch or canoe birch
  • Used for fuel wood and in value-added wood products
  • scattered over the island but common in valleys on west coast of island
  • Other less common birch is YELLOW BIRCH
boreal forest fauna
BOREAL FOREST FAUNA
  • What types of fauna live in our forests?
    • Moose
    • Black Bear
    • Woodland Caribou
    • Canadian Lynx
    • Snowshoe Hare
    • Red Squirrel
    • Little Brown Bat
    • Mink
    • Coyote
    • Beaver
    • Newfoundland Marten
    • Red Fox
    • Masked Shrew
    • Voles
    • Rock Ptarmigan
links
LINKS
  • http://ca.youtube.com/watch?v=YNG7_aAhyY4
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Xhj_qVII1Wg
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RB9uzMjiYSQ
  • http://fliiby.com/file/130754/cuwxmfpbfd.html
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IfxRXL0KGXQ&feature=related
  • http://www.hww.ca/media.asp?mcid=2
unit 3 forestry1

UNIT 3 - FORESTRY

TOPIC 6 – SURVIVING THE HARSH ENVIRONMENT of a BOREAL FOREST

adaptation 1 preventing dessication
ADAPTATION 1 – PREVENTING DESSICATION)
  • Coniferous leaves are modified to prevent dessication, which means “drying out”
  • They are modified into needles or scales that:
    • decrease surface area
    • reduce water loss by transpiration (evaporation from leaves)
adaptation 2 withstanding snow load
ADAPTATION 2 – WITHSTANDING SNOW LOAD
  • Conifers have downward sloping of boughs, allowing trees to shed a heavy snow load.
adaptation 3 withstanding extreme cold
aDAPTATION 3 – WITHSTANDING EXTREME COLD
  • At low temperatures between 0 to -40 degrees Celsius, other trees might freeze to death.
  • In conifers, liquids in the tree remain liquid, a process known as super cooling.
  • Some conifers that can survive below -40 degrees Celsius include white and black spruce, and tamarack
adaptation 4 maximizing photosynthesis
ADAPTATION 4 – MAXIMIZING PHOTOSYNTHESIS
  • Due to the ALBEDO EFFECT, darker objects absorb more heat energy as compared to lighter–hued objects.
  • The dark green of conifer needles helps the trees absorb the maximum heat from the sun and begin photosynthesis as early as possible
adaptation 5 cones
ADAPTATION 5 - CONES
  • Example: Black Spruce
    • It produces two types of seed cones, CLOSED and OPEN CONES.
    • Open seed cones drop each year and sprout in any area where there is enough light to grow.
    • Closed cones cannot release their seeds unless heated to a high temperature by fire. The heat of the fire melts the resin that acts like glue to keep the seed cone closed