The Research Enterprise in Psychology. Chapter 2. The Scientific Method. [Packet] Scientific Approach C.N. What does an experiment in Psychology look like?. Key Points Notes. Summary:. The Assumption. There are laws of behavior that can be discovered through empirical research!
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There are laws of behavior that can be discovered through empirical research!
Example: Are men or women more sociable? To measure, define your variables. Then come up with operational definitions for sociability such as
Example: My hypothesis is that women exhibit overall greater sociable behavior than men. Operational definitions
Result: Women spent more time talking to others, were closer to each other in proximity, and smiled and laughed more than men. Therefore, women are more sociable than men. Is this a reasonable conclusion based on my variables?
Application and Control of Behavior: The Highest Goal
In the last decade or so, science has discovered a tremendous amount about the role emotions play in our lives. Researchers have found that even more than I.Q., your emotional awareness and abilities to handle feelings will determine your success and happiness in all walks of life, including family relationships. -John Gottman
Directions: You will design a hypothetical study on a psychological questions that interests you. You DO NOT have to carry out the study.Flowchart in Scientific Investigation
Question: Do adults or teens tend to overreact more frequently?
Hypothesis: Overreactions are more prevalent among teens.
1-Formulate a question and a hypothesis
#2- Design the study (include variables and groups)
#3- How would you collect the data (include operational definitions)
Dep. Variable: Strength and frequency of overreaction
CG: 12 males, 13 females. Adults only. Expose this group to such provoking stimuli as (1) take away phones, (2) initiate human rights discussion, (3) initiate gossip chain, (4) introduce “loud mouth” into room
EG: 12 males, 13 females. Teens only. Expose this group to such provoking stimuli as (1) take away phones, (2) initiate human rights discussion, (3) initiate gossip chain, (4) introduce “loud mouth” into room
Experimental setting will have couches, tables w/activities, and electronics. Data will be taken from experimenters observing through two-way mirror
Age: teen= 11-18 years old, adult=25-50 years old
could Pigeons can learn to peck a visual target on
a screen in order to receive food.
1903- “The Experimental Psychology and
Psychopathology of Animals”
changing foxes into dogs in the 50’s by breeding strategically
and controlling their environment.
“Thirty-five generations . . .
The tame foxes not only behaved like domestic dogs, they looked like them. . . Their tails turned up at the end like a dog’s, rather than down like a fox’s brush. The females came on heat every six months . . . instead of every year like a vixen. According to Belyaev, they even sounded like dogs.”
infant and mother rhesuses in1950s
1,000 signs based on ASL,and
understands 2,000 words of spoken
"The behavior of these monkeys as mothers -- the 'motherless mothers' as Harlow called them -- proved to be very inadequate ... These mothers tended to be either indifferent or abusive toward their babies. The indifferent mothers did not nurse, comfort, or protect their young, but they did not harm them. The abusive mothers violently bit or otherwise injured their infants, to the point that many of them died."
“Frown cry-frown sad.”
The true stories we hear say . . .
Statistics and Facts
The facts and stats that often don’t show up in stories say . . .
Which of these columns is more emotional?
Research is done on rhesus monkeys, a kind of primate that is strikingly similar to humans.
A number of these monkeys are used for AIDS research.
Nearly a seventh of the monkeys in the Monkey House die every year.
Wolf: “Way back in Once Upon a Time time, I was making a birthday cake for my dear old granny. I had a terrible sneezing cold. I ran out of sugar. So I walked down the street to ask my neighbor for a cup of sugar. Now this neighbor was a pig. And he wasn't too bright either. He had built his whole house out of straw. Can you believe it? I mean who in his right mind would build a house of straw? So of course the minute I knocked on the door, it fell right in. I didn't want to just walk into someone else's house. So I called, "Little Pig, Little Pig, are you in?" No answer. I was just about to go home without the cup of sugar for my dear old granny's birthday cake.
That's when my nose started to itch. I felt a sneeze coming on. Well I huffed. And I snuffed. And I sneezed a great sneeze.
And you know what? The whole darn straw house fell down. And right in the middle of the pile of straw was the First Little Pig - dead as a doornail. He had been home the whole time. It seemed like a shame to leave a perfectly good ham dinner lying there in the straw. So I ate it up.”
So, anecdotal evidence plays on people’s emotions, but can stats and facts . . . mislead?
Example: When I was three, one of my favorite stories was Curious George. My brother would often sit in on the stories. Soon thereafter, my brother began asking my parents for a pet monkey. For every gift-giving holiday, he always had the same request: “Can I have a monkey?” This begging continued for years. Finally, my parents told him that they would think about it if he researched the topic and found out what was required to care for a monkey. He researched for weeks. Soon, he discovered that taking care of a monkey was a full time job and that, ultimately, monkeys don’t go on fun adventures with men in yellow hats. For his next birthday, he asked for spelunking equipment instead! The facts of
monkey care finally defeated the romance of anecdote.
Make a one-sheet advertisement for a psychological conference you’re going to give on animal research. Your audience is professors and students. Choose either the pro side or the con side of animal research. On your teaser include the following: