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Physics behind 3D Movies. Case Study – 3D movies. With 3D viewing technology offered in cinemas, many people are fast to snap up on the tickets to 3D movies. I watched Alice in Wonderland in 3D version at Shaw Theatre recently and wondered what was the science behind the 3D glasses.

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case study 3d movies
Case Study – 3D movies

With 3D viewing technology offered in cinemas, many people are fast to snap up on the tickets to 3D movies. I watched Alice in Wonderland in 3D version at Shaw Theatre recently and wondered what was the science behind the 3D glasses.

how do our eyes work
How do our eyes work
  • Our eyes project a 3D image in the brain by seeing things from two different viewpoints as noted by the gap between our eyes and these 2 2D images are formed in the brain into 1 3D image. Thus, 3D images are formed and everything in the real world is 3D.
2d movies
2D Movies

2D movies work on a film being projected onto the screen. Everything is on the screen and in 2D. The light is unpolarized.

polarized light and unpolarized ight
Polarized light and Unpolarized ight
  • Light is an electromagnetic wave
  • Electromagnetic waves consist of electric and magnetic component
  • Electric component (electric force field) moves up and down as the electromagnetic waves forward
unpolarized light
Unpolarized light
  • From Sun, bulbs, candles
  • No fixed plant of oscillation
  • Yellow plane arrow changes angles but keeps direction of light
  • Random changes in direction of light

3D animation

polarized light
Polarized Light
  • Filtered Light
  • Fixed plane of oscillation
  • Half of the intensity of unpolarized light
unpolarized vs polarized
Unpolarized VS Polarized
  • For unpolarized light, no matter how the arrow turns, electric forces are always perpendicular to ray direction

Polarized light

Unpolarized light

polarizers
Polarizers
  • Filters out the unpolarized light into single light planes
  • Have lines aligned in 1 direction and only allow 1 plane of light to pass
  • Circular polarization and linear polarization
circular polarizer and linear polarizer
Circular polarizer and linear polarizer
  • Circular polarizer used for 3D glasses
circular polarizer and linear polarizer11
Circular polarizer and linear polarizer
  • Circular polarizer is just a quarter wave plate in addition to the linear polarizer
  • Linear polarized 3D glasses will work with all the old stereo projectors, StereoJet prints, and modern projector systems with linear polarizers attached
  • Circular polarized 3D glasses are specifically for the StereoGraphics Z-Screen and some 3-D digital projection systems.
circular polarizer and linear polarizer12
Circular polarizer and linear polarizer
  • Not much difference as both saturates colors and eliminates reflections from water and windows for cameras
  • Circular polarizers are more expensive but can eliminate possible metering errors while linear polarizers are unable to
filters to transform unpolarized light to polarized light
Filters to transform unpolarized light to polarized light
  • Polaroid filter
  • Enables only 1 polarization of light to pass through.
3d movies
3D Movies
  • Eyes are two inches apart, two different angles on viewing the same things creates a 3D image
  • 3D movies trick the brain by projecting two 2D images separately to the two eyes and recreate a 3D image in the brain
3d movies15
3D Movies
  • 3D movies not viewed with the glasses are very fuzzy and eye-straining to look at
  • The same scene is projected simultaneously from two sources
  • Previous 3D movies used colour as filter but polarization is used
colour and polarization
Colour and Polarization
  • Colour 3D uses contrast of colours
  • An anaglyph image is formed
  • Each lens is made up of a chromatically different colour – blue and red
  • Colour used to provide separation
  • Red part allows blue light to enter while blue part allows red light to enter
colour as filter
Colour as filter
  • A severe disadvantage is that film cannot have much colour as colour is used as filter in this case

Stereo Monochrome image

polarization
Polarization
  • Two synchronised projectors project two respective views, each with a different polarization
  • Each side of the glasses allows 1 plane of light to enter
3d movies19
3D Movies
  • Due to the 3D effect, viewers can feel the thrill of being in the movie themselves and get really close to the characters
bites
Bites
  • 3D glasses if not cleaned properly can pass on eye infections to others
  • Can cause headaches and blurred vision
  • Forces viewers to focus on things in the foreground (which causes eyes to converge) and distance (which causes them to separate) simultaneously
  • Vergence accomodation conflict
build your own 3d glasses activity
Build your own 3D glasses activity
  • Cardboard
  • Scissors
  • Tape
  • Red and Blue acetate (Available from art store)
build your own 3d glasses activity22
Build your own 3D glasses activity
  • Trace a pattern on the paper of the three parts of spec mainly the two sides and a middle portion
  • Place them on the cardboard and cut out the shapes
  • Cut eyeholes
  • Tape the blue and red acetate separately on the two eyeholes and you have a 3D glasses
other facts
Other Facts
  • 3D glasses used will not produce a 3D effect on home TV as light is unpolarized
existing 3d displays and technologies
Existing 3D displays and technologies
  • Color Filter glasses (used in some modern 3D movies)
  • Polarizing glasses ( used in some modern 3D movies)
  • Shutter glasses
  • Separate display for each eye ( used in HMDs)
  • 3DTV
slide26

How does the 3-D effect work?

  • Our ability to see in three dimensions (also referred to as Stereo vision) comes from each our eyes seeing a slightly different view of the world. Our brain integrates these two images into one three dimensional picture.
  • A key element in producing 3D vision is parallax. Parallax is the horizontal distance between corresponding left and right image points.
color filter glasses
Color Filter Glasses
  • Each eye has a different color filter in front of them
  • The brain integrates the two images together and combined image is 3 dimensional.
  • Common color filter combinations include red and green, and blue and green.
advantages and disadvantages
Advantages and Disadvantages
  • 3D material can be stored to any standard video media, and viewed with normal display devices
  • Glasses are inexpensive
  • Few possible color combinations causes images not of exceptional quality
  • Causes colors in the image to be compromised, causing objects coming out screen to appear gray.
polarizing glasses
Polarizing Glasses
  • This method is used with projection displays when 3D material needs to be displayed.
  • Glasses consist of 2 polarizing lens which have their polarization direction to be 90 degrees different.
  • The material which has to be shown is typically projected using 2 projectors,where each have polarizing lenses in front of them.
advantage and disadvantage
Advantage and Disadvantage
  • Pictures can be in full color
  • Glasses are still inexpensive
  • Projection surface must be specially made so as not to affect the polarization.
lcd shutter glass method
LCD Shutter Glass Method
  • Alternates images rapidly on the monitor screen for left and right images.
  • Viewer looks at screen through the shuttering eyewear.
  • Signal is a normal signal that has been specially recorded with the left and right images stored on the even and odd fields of the video signal.
disadvantages
Disadvantages
  • Image must be refreshed fast enough to avoid flicker
  • Synchronization errors, and occasional ghost images.
head mount displays
Head Mount Displays
  • Helmet like device where there are two separate displays installed.
  • Used in many high-end virtual reality systems, they deliver very realistic 3D graphics, and allow the viewer to turn their heads, giving the impression of a 3D world.
  • The only disadvantage to HMD devices is the extremely high price.
hines lab 3d tv
Hines Lab 3D TV
  • This device is built around a single liquid crystal panel, on which multiple images are arranged and projected to a rear-projection screen where they form the 3-D image. Stereo and motion parallax allow the viewer to confirm the position and roundness of objects as the observer changes positions.
advantages of 3d tv
Advantages of 3D TV
  • The signal can be broadcast by a single television station over air ways or cable
  • Can be used as a computer display, or for video games
  • Can be projected to virtually any screen size
  • Projects all images simultaneously, in full color, and creates no flicker
  • Can be produced economically, because it uses a single LC panel and conventional optics.