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MONITORING MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI ON PLANTED WHITEBARK PINES IN THE GYE DO PLANTED PINES HAVE THE “RIGHT STUFF” ON THEIR ROOTS FOR SURVIVAL?. Cooperators: Mary Hecktner, YNP Resource Manager, Yellowstone National Park Dan Reinhart, Resource specialist, YNP & Kay Izlar, U of M
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DO PLANTED PINES HAVE THE “RIGHT STUFF” ON THEIR ROOTS FOR SURVIVAL?
Mary Hecktner, YNP Resource Manager, Yellowstone National Park
Dan Reinhart, Resource specialist, YNP & Kay Izlar, U of M
Bob Keane, USFS Fire Ecologist, Missoula Fire Office
Julie Shea, USFS Fire Officer Gallatin National Forest, MT
Stan Cook, USFS Silviculturist, Gallatin National Forest, MT
Cyndi Smith, Parks Canada Ecologist, Waterton Lakes National Park
Joyce Lapp, Park Service Silviculturist, Glacier National Park
Cathy L Cripps, PhD, Montana State University
Paul Trusty, graduate student, MSU
Kate Mohatt, graduate student, MSU
Ben Johnson, undergraduate, MSU
Don Bachman, freelance field assistant
GOALS OF OUR RESEARCH PROGRAM
“MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI OF WHITEBARK PINE”
1. DISCOVERY - ongoing
2. MONITORING – today’s topic
WHAT ARE MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI?
DUNRAVEN PASS, YNP
FRIDLEY BURN, GALLATIN NATIONAL FOREST, MT
3. APPLICATION - the future
Seedling planted along Dunraven Pass
Tomback, Arno & Keane 2001
Significant restoration efforts have been ongoing for the last 15 years, yet no one has addressed mycorrhizal fungi and whitebark pine!
2 MAIN TYPES
A mutualistic relationship between certain fungi and plant roots
“beneficial to both”
Benefits to fungus
get sugars from the plant i.e. Food!
Potential benefits to plant
enhanced phosphorus uptake
improved access to nitrogen
Mycorrhizal fungi can also
provide links to other plants
Brundrett et al. 2007 website
YES! But which ones?
ECM FUNGI ARE CRUCIAL TO ESTABLISHMENT, SURVIVAL, SUSTAINABILITY OF WHITEBARK PINE!
Cripps 2001 Encyclopedia of Plant Pathology; Smith and Read 1998. Mycorrhizal Symbiosis
Ectomycorrhizae on roots
TO IDENTIFY FUNGI ON ROOTS & CONFIRM ASSOCIATION
Gardes & Bruns 1993. ITS primers with enhanced specificity for basidiomycetes-application for the identification of mycorrhizae and rusts. Mol. Ecol. 2: 113-118.
WHICH MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI ASSOCIATE WITH WHITE BARK PINE IN THE GREATER YELLOWSTONE ECOSYSTEM & THE SURROUNDING REGION?
New World District, Gravelly Mountains, Sacajawea Peak, Big Sky Ski Area, Golden Trout Lakes, Dunraven Pass, Waterton Park, Glacier Park
Glacier National Park
Waterton Lakes National Park
Yellowstone National Park
32 species of ECM fungi confirmed with whitebark pine by fruiting bodies or ectomycorrhizae on roots
Hygrophorus marzuolus (Fr.)
Cortinarius aff. fulminoides
Dermocybe crocea (Schff.) Mos.
Russula cf tortulosa /queletii
Russula sp. 2, Russula sp. 3
Unculturable, shared with other conifers
Chroogomphus sp. nov.
Rhizopogon cf milleri
Rhizopogon cf evadens
Suillus tomentosus var. discolor
PHALLALES - GOMPHALES
Tomentelloid type 1
Tomentelloid type 2
SUILLOIDS – mostly specific for pines, 5-needle pines & stone pines
SEEDLINGS, YOUNGER TREES, & OLDER TREES
Unculturable, some may be specific for pines or shared with other conifers
MOSTLY OLDER TREES
Generalist, important in dry conditions for relations
SEEDLINGS UNDER CANOPY & OLDER TREES
Cripps & Mohatt 2005 (Nutcracker Notes), Mohatt 2006 (MSU Thesis)
Mohatt, Cripps & Lavin (in ed) Ectomycorrhizal fungi of whitebark pine (a tree in peril) revealed by sporocarps and molecular analysis of mycorrhizae from treeline forests in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. Can. J. Bot. (coming soon!)
Moser 2004. In Cripps: Fungi in Forest Ecosystems, NYBG Press. (fungi with 5-needle pines in Alps, Altai, Rocky Mts)
Suillus subalpinus – 5-needle pine/stone pines
Suillus sibericus – stone pines
Chroogomphus sp nov (new species)- whitebark pine
Rhizopogon milleri & R. evadens (pine/5-needle/stone pine)
These fungi are eaten by squirrels, deer, elk & bears which spread the spores
Peaco photo, YNP
Czares & Trappe 1994. Spore dispersal of ectomycorrhizal fungi by mammal mycophagy. Mycologia 86
DUNRAVEN PASS, YNP
Ashkannejhad & Horton 2006. Ectomycorrhizal ecology on coastal dunes: interactions involving Pinus contorta, Suilloid fungi and deer. New Phytol. 169:345-354.
Mattson et al. 2002. Consumption of sporocarps by Yellowstone grizzly bears. Ursus 13:95-103.
Project 1: Whitebark Pine Restoration, Dunraven Pass Yellowstone National Park: Monitoring the mycorrhizal status of planted whitebark pine seedlings.
10 sites where whitebark pine seedlings were planted & monitored
Greater Yellowstone Coordinating Committee & Rocky Mountain Research Station funding. Cooperators: Mary Hecktner Resource manager YNP, Dan Reinhart YNP, and Kay Izlar, U of M.
WHAT IS THE MYCORRHIZAL CONDITION OF NURSERY SEEDLINGS BEFORE OUT- PLANTING?
FUNGI ON NURSERY SEEDLINGS? BENEFIT OR CONCERN?
Root hairs = non-mycorrhizal
E-strain fungus – typical in nurseries
Thelephora sp – typical in nurseries
Percent mycorrhizal colonization of root tips and depth of ectomycorrhizae on cone-tainerized roots systems
Kay Izlar’s “star performer”: seedling #1, site 6 Collected below a mature whitebark pine
Mycorrhizal colonization of cone-tainerized roots
NATIVE ECTOMYCORRHIZAE ON WHITEBARK PINE SEEDLINGS PLANTED ALONG DUNRAVEN PASS (sampled 9 months after planting)
Cenococcum & sclerotia
A DIVERSITY OF NATIVE SUILLOIDS WERE PRESENT, ALONG WITH OTHER NATIVE ECTOMYCORRHIZAL FUNGI (Rhizopogon species, Suillus species).
Molecular identifications by Paul Trusty
ARE MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI FOUND IN REPLACED SOIL ON DUNRAVEN PASS AND AVAILABLE TO SEEDLINGS?
METHOD: SOIL BIOASSAY IN GREENHOUSE
T1: REPLACED SOIL, UNSTERILIZED
T2: NATIVE WBP FOREST SOIL, UNSTERILIZED
T3: REPLACED SOIL, STERILIZED (CONTROL)
T4: NATIVE SOIL, STERILIZED (CONTROL)
Develop of a method to test various soils for presence of appropriate fungi---------
Mycorrhizal colonization of 2-year-old nursery seedlings planted in various soils from Dunraven Pass (YNP) after 1 year in greenhouse conditions
† incomplete sterilization
Molecular ID by P Trusty
Native fungi: all Suilloid fungi (Rhizopogon subbadius, R. sp. 1, and Suillus aff. borealis, Suillus sp., Amphinema sp.).
Nursery fungi: Wilcoxina (E-strain) confirmed on some, not confirmed molecularly on all)
Assessment of mycorrhizal colonization of rust resistant white bark pine seedlings planted in Post-fire Restoration Treatments on a severe burn (Fridley Burn, Gallatin NF, MT) as a measure of sustainability.
Paul Trusty graduate student MSU
Pacific Biodiversity Institute
NASA EARTH OBSERVATORY AUG 19, 2001
Rocky Mountain Research Station Funding. Cooperator Bob Keane, Fire Ecologist,Missoula, MT. Julie Shea, USFS Fire Officer Gallatin NF, Stan Cook, USFS Silviculturist, Gallatin NF, MT
2. planted rust resistant seedlings
3. naturally regenerating seedlings
1. Naturally regenerating seedlings
3 transects in burn and 3 in adjacent unburned whitebark pine forest, 2X samplings
Minimally destructive sampling: root samples removed from seedlings in situ
N=60 T1 = burned, planted seedlings N=60 T2 = unburned adjacent forest, naturally regenerating seedlings N=24 T3 = burned, naturally regenerating seedlings
RESEARCH PROJECT OF PAUL TRUSTY, MSU GRADUATE STUDENT
Mycorrhizal colonization of whitebark pine seedlings 5 years after burn
Cortinarius - unburned
Amphinema - burn
PAUL TRUSTY DATA & PHOTOS 2006
Byssocorticium - burn
Relative Importance of Ectomycorrhizal types by “treatment”
A “shift” in mycorrhizal taxa after the burn
Importance value = relative frequency & relative abundance
Species shift:1. Mycorrhizal fungi on burn different from those in unburned forests.
2. Natural & planted seedlings on burn share fungal taxa.
3. Suilloid fungi coming into burned area after 5 years.
3. Unclear at this point if nursery fungi persist after 5 years.
4. Functional significance of shift is unknown at this point.
PAUL TRUSTY DATA 2007
PAUL TRUSTY DATA 2007
CONDITIONS WERE OPTIMIZED FOR MYCORRHIZAL COLONIZATION IN PLANTINGS OF RUST RESISTENT SEEDLINGS ON THE FRIDLEY BURN
Cone-tainerized root systems on planted seedlings after 5 years
Naturally regenerating seedlings
Picked up Suilloids & E-strain on burned & unburned soil
FLOW CHART FOR DETERMINING WHEN INOCULATION IS NECESSARY
HOW CAN WE OPTIMIZE THE SYSTEM?
Inoculation of seedlings with native ECM can increase seedling survival and fitness (Smith 1998)
Cripps, CL 2003. Native mycorrhizal fungi with aspen on smelter-impacted sites in the Northern Rocky Mountains: occurrence and potential use in reclamation. Amercian Society of Mined Land Reclamation, Lexington, KY. Pgs. 193-208.
Mahony, C 2004. Effects of native ectomycorrhizal fungi on aspen seedlings in greenhouse studies: inoculation methods, fertilizer regimes, and plant uptake of slected elements in smelter-impacted soils. M.S. Thesis (Cripps),
Brundrett et al. 1996. Working with Mycorrhizas in Agriculture. CSIRO.
THANKS TO ALL THOSE WHO HAVE HELPED WITH OUR WHTEBARK PROJECTS:
Mary Hecktner, YNP Resource Manager, Yellowstone National Park; Dan Reinhart, YNP & Kay Izlar, U of M; Bob Keane, USFS Fire Ecologist, Missoula Fire Office; Julie Shea, USFS Fire Officer Gallatin NF, MT; Stan Cook, USFS Silviculturist, Gallatin NF, MT; Cyndi Smith, Parks Canada Ecologist, Waterton Lakes National Park; Joyce Lapp, Park Service Silviculturist, Glacier National Park; Tara Carolin, Glacier National Park.
OR JUST THE BEGINNING?