Newton's color circle. The size of each sector corresponds to the extension of the respective color over the spectrum, their number refers to the number of colors that the eye manages to see.
Goethe's circle of pigmentarycolors. Goethe placed two overlapping equilateral triangles opposite each other in a circle and colored their vertices with the three primaries and three secondaries respectively.
Rood Circle • Color are distributed in shape of circle , the area of every color varies the other color according to the wave length.
Munsell Color System…… • Albert Henry Munsell (1858-1918)
Munsell'scircle of fundamental colors as perceived in nature. The five principal colors are shown on the circumference by the continuous line, the five intermediate colors by the dotted line.
Munsell Color System: • In the Munsell System , any color is described as three attributes : • Hue , Value , & Chroma. • Value: it is the color darkness or lightness. • The value of color depends on the amount of light reflects (lighter) or absorbs (darker). • Munsell measures it by a scale of tones ranging from light to dark, White at the top(9), black at the bottom(1). • The color value is found by matching it with one of the steps of grey. • Light values above the middle of the scale(6–9)are Tints,Dark values below the middle(4–1) are shades
Munsell Color System: • In the Munsell System , any color is described as three attributes : • Hue , Value , & Chroma. • Hue , Value / Chroma. • The Value number of a color follows the hue designation. • For example, R,4 is red with a value matching step 4 of the gray scale. • R,4/6 is Red with value number of 4 and a chroma of 6.
Munsell Color System: • In the Munsell System , any color is described as three attributes : • Hue , Value , & Chroma. • Chroma:the third aspect of color is its intensity or purity or Saturation, called chroma in Munsell system. • Steps of chroma are numbered up to 14 and 18 etc… from low chroma to maximum chroma. • Maximum chroma signifies a particulate hue in its purest form. • Adding the grey to hue opposite to it lowers its chroma, the color become less pure. • Mixing equal amount of opposite colors produces a neutral gray.
Chroma: notation of color is RP,5/26 indicates a red purple hue, a value 5 and chroma 26. fullest chroma for hue RP (red-purple) is achieved at 5/26
Munsell Color System: • Chroma: Another color such as YR (yellowish yellow-red) has a much shorter chroma axis and reaches fullest chroma at 7/10 and 6/10.
In the Munsell System, reds, blues, & purples tend to be stronger hues that average higher chroma values at full saturation, • while yellows & greens are weaker hues that average fullest chroma saturation relatively close to the neutral axis. • The result of these differences is that what Munsell originally envisioned as a sphere or orb is radically asymmetrical. • A 3-dimensional solid representation of Munsell's system would look like the shown figure .
Ostwald Color System: • The Ostwald color system has fallen out of favor, primarily because its coordinates are too coarse. It is much more symmetrical than the Munsell color system. • It is a cylindrical coordinate system: A color wheel plus a 2D grid with set at 45 degrees to the core. The 3D shape is a double cone. • The Ostwald notation to specify the coordinates is Hbw. (Hue, black%, White%). • Dominant Wavelength (Hue) has 24 hues in the color wheel. • The 8 groups are yellow (1,2,3), orange,red, purple, blue, turquoise, seagreen and leafgreen.
Ostwald’s double-cone: • Ostwald's color wheel or double cone in its simplest diagrammatic form. • The colors are at their most saturated on the equator; from this point they become lighter toward white or darker toward black in the direction of the poles of the neutral axis. • The inside of the solid contains all the colors it is possible to mix with their relative gradations of lightness and darkness. • The equator of Ostwald's color wheel divides it into twenty-four different tonalities. • The colors of each tonality gradually intensify as they radiate from the gray center of the axis, finally reaching complete saturation at the periphery (clearly showing why saturation is defined in terms of absence of gray), and take on a higher content of white or black as they move vertically in the direction of the respective poles http://www.coloracademy.co.uk/ColorAcademy%202006/subjects/ostwald/ostwald.htm
Ostwald’s double-cone: • Two sample vertical sections of the color wheel, showing a rhomboid formed of two mono-chrome triangles and the arrangement of the color and its shades from the most distant vertex to the neutral axis.
Ostwald’s double-cone: • The gray scale, because of its central position, divides each rhombus into two equilateral triangles • If, for instance, we place blue-green as a pure color at the tip of the left- hand equilateral triangle, its complementary color, orange-red, will appear as a pure color at the tip of the opposite triangle.
Each vertical section has 56 colors, 28 to each triangle. As a result, the complete solid of 24 triangles contains 672 chromatic colors, plus 8 grades of the gray scale, giving a total of 680. • The color wheel can also be divided in planes parallel to the equator Each of the resultant disks shows the overall level of lightness or darkness attained by the colors, both above and below the equator.
Color Systems : • Ostwald’s double-cone: Do we have Monochromatic triangles arranged around a gray axis in Ostwald’s double cone ??? Does each parallel disk represent a different color with same tint or shade ??? PLEASE ANSWER BY Y/N and CORRECT the STATEMENT.