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Model S – A Game Changer of Electric Vehicle. Yih-Charng Deng ( 鄧益常 ) Technical Fellow, Crash Safety, Tesla Motors Weilin Chang ( 張維麟 ) Engineering Manager, Power & Vehicle Electronics, Tesla Motors. Transportation Issues Facing the Human Race.

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Model s a game changer of electric vehicle

Model S – A Game Changer of Electric Vehicle

Yih-Charng Deng (鄧益常)

Technical Fellow, Crash Safety, Tesla Motors

Weilin Chang (張維麟)

Engineering Manager, Power & Vehicle Electronics, Tesla Motors

Transportation issues facing the human race
Transportation Issues Facing the Human Race

  • Global automobile population > 1 billion in 2010 (Ward’s Auto report)

  • Will double by 2030

  • Not sustainable (petroleum & capacity for production, greenhouse gases emission)

  • Sperling & Gordon, 2009, Two Billion Cars: Driving Toward Sustainability

    • Vehicle transformation (hybrid, electric, etc.)

    • Fuel transformation (biofuel, hydrogen, etc.)

    • Mobility transformation (rapid mass transit, telecommunication, etc.)

History of ev
History of EV

  • In 1900: 40% steam, 38% electricity, 22% gasoline

  • In 1920s, IC engine vehicles started to dominate

  • Air pollution problems in major US cities

  • 1990 Clean Air Resources Board (CARB) of CA & Zero-Emission Vehicle (ZEV) mandate

  • EV1 from GM

  • ZEV abolished in 2003, EV1 program terminated by GM

Fuel economy drive
Fuel Economy Drive

  • 1975 – Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFÉ)

  • 2007 – Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA), 35 mpg by 2020

  • 2009 New Fuel Economy Proposal – 35.5 mpg by 2016

  • 2011 US Government Agreement w/ 13 Car Manufacturers – 54.5 mpg by MY2025

  • Hybrid vehicles and new wave of EV

Ev advantages disadvantage
EV Advantages/Disadvantage

  • Higher efficiency (80%), 3 times that of IC engine

  • Energy chain (source to wheels) – EV is 10-30% more efficient (expect to increase)

  • Can use clean energy source at power plants (solar, wind, hydro)

  • Current EV’s < 100 miles range

  • 2012 Model S from Tesla Motors

    • Over 300 miles range

    • 0 to 60 mph in 4.4 sec.

Ev energy efficiency
EV Energy Efficiency

Electric Vehicle Efficiency

Internal Combustion Vehicle Efficiency

Hybrids and Plug-In Hybrid Vehicle Efficiency

All electric powertrain
All Electric Powertrain

  • Energy Storage System (Battery Pack)

  • Propulsion System:

    • Motor

    • Gearbox

    • Inverter

  • Charger

Battery design
Battery Design

  • Cell:

    • Cell selection

    • Energy & power density

    • Cycle and calendar life

  • Module:

    • Safety protection technology (open, short & propagation)

    • Voltage balancing

    • Package density

    • Isolation and thermal management

  • Battery Pack:

    • Safety protection circuit

    • Lightweight & durability

    • Design for quick swap

Battery cell form factor
Battery Cell Form Factor

  • Cylindrical Cell:

    • Good cycling ability, mechanical stability, economical for manufacturing

    • Heavy and relative low package density

  • Prismatic Cell:

    • Optimal use of space by using layered approach, improving space utilization, and allowing flexible design to achieve higher package density, the metallic housing providing mechanical stability

    • More expensive, less efficient in thermal management, shorter cycle life

  • Pouch Cell:

    • Simple, flexible and lightweight solution to battery design, highest package efficiency, cost-effective for manufacturing

    • Swelling factor, shortest cycle life and less durable

Why lithium ion
Why Lithium-ion

  • Advantages

    • Today’s lithium-ion cells have the highest density w/ a good balance of power density

    • Relatively low self-discharge, less than half that of NiCd and NiMH

    • Low maintenance, no periodic discharge needed

    • No memory effect

  • Challenges

    • Requires protection circuit to limit voltage and current

    • Subjects to aging, even if not in use

    • Transportation regulations when shipping in larger quantities

    • Higher cost

Model s battery
Model S Battery

  • Equipped with over 7000 lithium-ion 18650 cells to provide up to 85kWh total energy capacity

  • Active liquid cooling/heating thermal management system

  • Total weight about 600kg and located underneath the floor, resulting in low center of gravity for high resistance to rollover and excellent vehicle handling

  • Model S achieves 320 miles range based on EPA-2 cycle procedure

  • Touchsafe quick disconnect for battery replacement or maintenance

  • Multi-layers of safety protection features from cell, module to pack design

  • Capable of supercharge (high current charging)

  • 8 years, unlimited miles warranty

Range vs speed
Range vs. Speed

  • Model S Cd = 0.24

  • EPA 2-cycle: 320 miles

  • EPA 5-cycle: 265 miles

  • New record for EV

Propulsion system
Propulsion System

  • Rear wheel drive propulsion system to provide better acceleration, road handling and no torque steering

  • Fully integrated system (motor, gearbox and inverter) to provide world record power density and reduce transmission power lose between sub-systems to increase power efficiency

  • Liquid cooling system for thermal management

  • Significantly less moving parts compared with ICE resulting in simplicity, reliability, low material and operation cost

  • IP6K9K ingress protection and IP8X under wading line depth

  • Communicate with vehicle through CAN and generate desired torque based on paddle position and inputs from other modules

Propulsion system motor
Propulsion System – Motor

  • Three-Phase, four- poles AC induction motor

  • Why AC motor (vs. DC brushless motor):

    • Cost, no rare-earth metal for permanent magnets

    • Efficiency, adjustable magnet field strength

  • Performance

    • Max torque: 600 Nm (443 lb-ft) during 0-5100 rpm

    • Max power: 416 hp (310 kW) during 5K-8.6K rpm

    • Top speed: 1600 rpm (130 mph)

    • Efficiency: Over 90%

Propulsion system gearbox
Propulsion System – Gearbox

  • Single speed, oil-cooled, open-differential transaxle gearbox

  • Fixed gear reduction ratio 9.73 to optimize top speed and range

  • No transmission and clutch to reduce system complexity and cost

  • Electrically actuated park brake

  • Design challenges

    • High motor rpm

    • Thermal management

    • High power and torque

    • Durability

Propulsion system inverter
Propulsion System - Inverter

  • Paralleling discrete IGBT’s forming half bridge power stage to convert DC to 3 phase AC

  • Capable of converting AC back to DC to charge battery during regenerative brake

  • Rated at 450A rms continuous current

  • Digital controller generating PWM to control switch

  • Coprocessor to ensure no misinterpretation of accelerator paddle position while generating torque

  • Continuously monitoring inputs from vehicle and other modules to determine current needed for desired torque

  • Several layers of safety features, hardware & software

Motor control algorithm
Motor Control Algorithm

  • Vector control (also called FOC) is a variable frequency drive control algorithm to control speed and torque of motor.

  • Vector control outperforms other motor control algorithm (such as Scalar and DTC) because the non-constant vehicle speed and quick response time requirements in real driving situation.

  • Both direct and Indirect FOC to calculate rotor flux position

  • Produce desirable torque through flux control and torque-producing current

  • Commercial DSP available for vector motor control (Clarke and Park transformation)

Onboard charger
Onboard Charger

  • Each box is capable of 10KW charging, up to 31 miles per hour of charge for Model S

  • Option to add 2nd charger in parallel to increase to 20kW charging capacity (62 miles/hour)

  • Single phase, acceptable voltage range from 85-265V at frequency 45-65Hz

  • Trickle charge if power source voltage is greater than battery voltage

  • Peak charger efficiency of 92%

  • Maximum charge current at normal condition

    • 110V: 20A from power source

    • 240V: 40A from single phase power source

  • Program charging schedule through vehicle touch screen and check charging status remotely

Universal Mobile Connector:

110V, 240V and J1772 public charging station adaptors are standard to ensure compatibility to different electrical outlets through different regions or countries.

GFCI protection

Communicate charging status and fault condition through indicator light

NEMA 4 environment sealed enclosure for outdoor usage

High Power Wall Connector:

Wall-mounted charger to provide up to 20kW charging capacity

Enclosure design meets NEMA 3R for environmental protection

Draw up to 80A from electrical outlet during charge

GFCI protection

Communicate charging status and fault condition through indicator light


Dedicated industrial graded high speed charge station

Charge half the battery (85kWh) in 30 minutes

Charging Infrastructure

Powertrain components from taiwan
Powertrain Components from Taiwan

Existing Projects:

  • Roadster & OEM Programs:

    • PEM, Charger, stator, rotor, motor shaft …

  • Model S Components:

    • Motor steel laminations, gears …

      Taiwan Industry Strengths:

  • Power and vehicle electronics

  • Motor & gears

  • Machining, sheet metal & die casting parts

Other salient features body
Other Salient Features – Body

  • Lightweight aluminum materials for maximum mass savings

  • Double octagon rails for high energy absorption in crash

  • High strength steel used in the B-pillars and bumpers

  • Superb side impact and rollover protection

  • Structural reinforcement for rear impact protection


  • Double wishbone, virtual steer axis front suspension and independent multi-link rear suspension

  • Optional air suspension



  • 17” Capacitive Touchscreen

  • Optional all-glass panoramic roof


  • 8 airbags

  • Retractor pretensioners

  • Load limiters

  • 5 point belt systems for the optional 3rd row child seats

  • Sensors to trigger high voltage battery cut-off

  • Extensive CAE in the design and development phases

Motor trend 8 27 12

Compared with Other Cars

Motor Trend 8/27/12

Automobile Magazine’s 2013 Automobile of the Year Testing 10/9/12:

Model S out-dragged BMW M5 (560 hp, 501 lb-ft torque) in 0-100 mph race

Tesla supercharger network1
Tesla Supercharger Network

  • 6 locations unveiled on 9/25/12

  • Solar carport systems, free charge for Model S owners indefinitely

  • Slight net positive power transfer back to the electricity grid

  • More supercharger stations in the US, Europe and Asia in 2013

Concluding remarks
Concluding Remarks

  • Team dedication

  • Relentless pursuit of excellence

  • Open working environment

  • 2012 production all reserved

  • Extremely positive feedback from customers and car critics (WSJ, USA Today, Motor Trend, 2013 Car of the Year – Yahoo Autos, Automobile Magazine)

  • A sea change of automotive landscape