Lecture 3 Behavioral Theories of Learning
Chapter 5 Main Contents • Part1.What is Learning? • Part2.What behavioral learning theories have evolved？ • Pavlov: Classical Conditioning • Thorndike’ theories of Learning • Skinner: Operant Conditioning • Principles of behavioral Learning • Part3 Bandura: Social Learning Theory ――Modeling and Observational Learning
Part 1 What is leaning
Case Study P137 Critical and Creative Thinking： What have students learnt in the class? Have they learnt the behaviors the teacher expected? Why didn’t Ms Esteban accomplish her goal？ If you are Ms Esteban，what are you going to do？Why？
Julia Esteban, first-grade teacher at Tanner Elementary School, was trying to teach her students appropriate classroom behavior. "Children," she said one day, "we are having a problem in this class that I'd like to discuss with you. Whenever I ask a question, many of you shout out your answers instead of raising your hand and waiting to be called on. Can anyone tell me what you should do when I ask the class a question?" Rebecca's hand shot into the air. "I know, I know!" she said. "Raise your hand and wait quietly!" Ms. Esteban sighed to herself. She tried to ignore Rebecca, who was doing exactly what she had just been told not to do, but Rebecca was the only student with her hand up, and the longer she delayed, the more frantically Rebecca waved her hand and shouted her answer. "All right, Rebecca. What are you supposed to do?" "We're supposed to raise our hands and wait quietly for you to call on us." "If you know the role, why were you shouting out your answer before I called on you?" "I guess I forgot." "All right. Can anyone remind the class of our rule about talking out of turn?" Four children raised their hands and shouted together.. "One at a time!" "Take turns!" "Don't talk when someone else is talking!" Ms. Esteban called for order. "You kids are going to drive me crazy!" she said. "Didn't we just talk about how to raise your hands and wait for me to call on you?" "But Ms. Esteban," said Stephen without even raising his hand. "You called on Rebecca and she wasn't quiet!"
Analysis：p138 Children are excellent learners. What they learn, however, may not always be what we intend to teach. Ms. Esteban is trying to teach students how to behave in class, but by paying attention to Rebecca’s outburst, she is actually teaching them the opposite of what she intends. Rebecca craves (expects) her teacher's attention, so being called on (even in an exasperated (angry) tone of voice) rewards her for calling out her answer. Not only does Ms. Esteban's response increase the chances that Rebecca will call out answers again, but Rebecca now serves as a model for her classmates' own calling out. What Ms.Esteban says is less important than her actual response to her students' behaviors.
What is learning? • Brainstorm: • When we hear the word “learning” most of us think of studying and school. But learning is not limit to School. • We learning everyday of our lives. • Given examples of what are learning and what are not learning?
A Definition of Learning Learning is usually defined as a change in an individual caused by experience
Understanding: • In the broadest sense, learning occurs when experience causes a relatively permanent change in an individual’s knowledge or behavior. • Changes simply caused by maturation, such as growing taller or turning gray, do not qualify as learning. • Learning takes place in many ways.
Learning takes place in many ways. • Video • it is intentional, or it is unintentional • It happens in human beings or animals • It happens in school or out of school • learning can be good or can be worse
Learning Theories： • There are two main theories: Behavioral learning theories and cognitive learning theories. • Behavioral learning theories Behavioral learning theories are explanations of learning that emphasize observable changes in behavior. • (Social learning theories focus on the effects of thought on action and action on thought.) • Cognitive learning theories are explanations of learning that focus on mental processes. • There are two branches of cognitive learning theories: cognitive structure learning theory（认知结构学习论），information－processing theory of learning（信息加工学习论）。
Part2 What behavioral learning theories have evolved？
Early Explanations of Learning 1. One of the earliest explanations of learning come from Aristotle (384-322B.C.) • Pavlov’s Classical Conditioning Classical conditioning was discovered by Ivan Pavlov, a Russian Physiologist, in the late 1800s and early 1900s
Aristole – (384-322BC) Knowledge acquired through experience. Four Laws of Association Law of similarity(相似) Law of Contrast（对比） Law of Contiguity（接近） Law of Frequency（频率）
Some important concepts: • Unconditioned Stimulus A stimulus that naturally evokes a particular response. • Unconditioned Response A behavior that is prompted atomically by a stimulus. • Neutral Stimuli Stimuli that have no effect on a particular response. • Conditioned Stimulus A previously neutral stimulus that evokes a particular response after having been paired with an unconditioned stimulus. • Classical Conditioning The process of repeatedly associating a previously neutral(中性的) stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus in order to evoke a conditioned response.
Summary（小结） • 1. Pavlov's emphasis on observation and careful measurement and his systematic exploration of several aspects of learning helped to advance the scientific study of learning. • 2. Pavlov also left other behavioral theorists with significant mysteries, such as the process by which neutral stimuli take on meaning. • 3.Although his findings have few applications to classroom instruction, they can help a teacher understand many situations, such as when a child's anxiety about being among strangers gradually develops into a debilitating fear of coming to school.
Learning Guide for next section • Thorndike, Skinner Experiments Conclusions Explanations Applications in Education
American psychologist and educator, born in Williamsburg, Massachusetts, and educated at Wesleyan, Harvard, and Columbia universities. Thorndike joined the psychology faculty at Teachers College of Columbia University in 1899, where he served as adjunct professor of educational psychology from 1901 to 1904 and as professor of psychology from 1904 until his retirement in 1940. From 1922 to 1940 he also was director of the psychology division of the Institute of Educational Research at Teachers College. 2. Thorndike’s theory of learning
Edward Thorndike (1874-1949) • Edward Thorndike, an American psychologist played major roles in developing learning theories. His early work involved cat’s that he placed in problem boxes. • By using trial-and-error experiments with animals, Thorndike formulated his so-called law of effect—the more satisfying the result of a particular action, the better that action is learned—and applied it to the development of special teaching techniques for use in the classroom. He is particularly known for his construction of various intelligence and aptitude tests and for his repudiation of the belief that such primarily intellectual subjects as languages and mathematics discipline the mind.
Edward Thorndike played major roles in developing learning theories. His early work involved cat’s that he placed in problem boxes.
Experiments description • Thorndike’s early work involved cats that he placed in problem boxes. To escape from the box and reach food outside, the cats had to pull out a bolt(门闩) or perform some other task; they had to act on their environment. During the frenzied（狂乱的，激怒的） movements that followed the closing of the box, the cats eventually made the correct movement to escape, usually by accident. After repeating the process many times, the cats learned to make the correct response almost immediately
Thorndike's learning theory can be summarized as follows: • 1 • The law of effect(效果律) - responses followed by a reward will strengthen the response • The law of readiness（准备律）- chaining a discrete responses to achieve a goal • The law of exercise（练习律）- associations are strengthened with practice, weakened without it, and can be diminished with failure or punishment.
For these experiments • 2 • Thorndike explained what was learning . He viewed that learning was the linkage between stimulus and response. The learning occurred when stimuli prompt response (stimuli-response theory ,S-R theory).
American psychologist B. F.Skinner became famous for his pioneering research on learning and behavior. During his 60-year career, Skinner discovered important principles of operant conditioning, a type of learning that involves reinforcement and punishment. A strict behaviorist, Skinner believed that operant conditioning could explain even the most complex of human behaviors. 3. Skinner’s Operant Conditioning
Skinner’s experiments • Skinner is famous for his development and use of a device(装置) that is commonly referred to as the Skinner box. Skinner boxes contain a very simple apparatus（设备，仪器） for studying the behavior of animals, usually rats and pigeons. • A Skinner box for rats would consist of a bar that is easy for the rat to press, a food dispenser（发配者） that could give the rat a pellet（小球） of food, and a water dispenser. The rat could not see or hear anything outside of the box, so all stimuli would be controlled by the experimenter.
Based on Skinner’s experiment He established the operant conditioning. Operant Conditioning is the use of pleasant or unpleasant consequences to control the occurrence of behavior.
Creative Thinking and Discuss in groups • Compare the contributions of Pavlov, Thorndike and Skinner ‘s view of learning. What are the difference among them?
CONSEQUENCE EFFECT Behaviors Reinforcer Strengthened or repeated behavior
4. Principles of behavioral Learning • consequences（结果）, • reinforcers（强化物）, • punishers（惩罚）, • immediacy of consequences（结果的及时性）, • shaping(塑造), • extinction（消退）, • schedules of reinforcement（强化的程序）, • maintenance（维持）, • and the role of antecedents(先行事件的作用).
consequences（结果） • The role of Consequences behavior changes according to its immediate consequences. Pleasurable consequences strengthen behavior; unpleasant consequences weaken it. Types of Consequences Pleasurable consequences and Unpleasant consequences
reinforcers（强化物） • positive reinforer and negative reinforcer • Primary reinforcersand secondaryreinforcers • Intrinsic（内部的） and Extrinsic（外部的） reinforcers
Ways of reinforcer • general principle of reinforcer • Ways 1. Self-reinforcement 2. Praise 3. Attention 4. Grades and recognition 5. Home-based reinforcement 6. Activity reinforcers. 7. Tangible(切实的，物质的) reinforcers
Theory into practice 1. Application of reinforcers------Premack Principle 2.Classroom uses of reinforcement (1)Decide what behaviors you want from students, and reinforce these behaviors when they occur. (2)Tell students what behaviors you want; when they exhibit the desired behaviors and you reinforce them, tell them why. (3) Reinforce appropriate behavior as soon as possible after it occurs. (4)to use the least elaborate(精心制作的，) or tangible（切实的） reinforcer
Punishers • Unpleasant Consequences that weaken behavior are called punishers. • (Thinking: if an unpleasant consequence can’t weeken behavior ,is it a punisher?)
Punishers • Punishment can take two primary forms: • PRESENTATION PUNISHMENT（呈现惩罚） • REMOVAL PUNISHMENT(取消性惩罚)
Immediacy of Consequences • Consequences that follow behaviors closely in time affect behavior far more than delayed consequences do.
Shaping • Shaping is an important tool in classroom instruction。 What is Shaping？？？ Case study
Example on page151 ，4thP • we want students to be able to write paragraphs with a topic sentence, three supporting details, and a concluding sentence. This task has many parts: being able to recognize and then produce topic sentences, supporting details, and concluding sentences; being able to write complete sentences using capitalization, punctuation, and grammar correctly; and being able to spell. If a teacher taught a lesson on all these skills, asked students to write paragraphs, and then scored them on content, grammar, punctuation, and spelling, most students would fail and would probably learn little from the exercise. Instead, the teacher might teach the skills step by step, gradually shaping the final skill. Students might be taught how to write first topic sentences, then supporting details, then concluding sentences. Early on, they might be held responsible only for paragraph content. Later, the requirement for reinforcement might be increased to include grammar and punctuation. Finally, spelling might be added as a criterion for success. At each stage, students would have a good chance to be reinforced, because the criterion for reinforcement would be within their grasp. The principle here is that students should be reinforced for behaviors that are within their current capabilities but that also stretch them toward new skills.
Shaping(塑造) When teachers guide students toward goals by reinforcing the many steps that lead to success, they are using a technique called shaping.
Extinction • The weakening and eventual elimination of a learned behavior as reinforcement is withdrawn is called extinction. (give some examples from your experience).
Schedules of Reinforcement • P155 • This term refers to the frequency with which reinforcers are given, the amount of time that elapses(流逝，消逝) between opportunities for reinforcement, and the predictability of reinforcement（强化程序是指给予强化物的频数、强化物之间的时间间隔以及强化的预期性等）.
Reinforcement Continuous Reinforcement Intermittent Reinforcement (Time) (Number) Fixed- interval Variable- interval Fixed-ratio Variable- ratio Schedules of Reinforcement
Schedules of Reinforcement • Continuous Reinforcement Schedule: Presenting a reinforce after every appropriate response. • Intermittent Reinforcement Schedule: Presenting a reinforcer after some but not all responses. • Interval Schedule: Reinforcement based on the length of time between refnforcers • Ratio Schedule: Reinforcement based on the number responses between reinforcers • Fixed-interval Schedule: Reinforcement Schedule in which desired behavior is rewarded following a constant amount of time • Variable-interval Schedule: Reinforcement Schedule in which desired behavior is rewarded following an unpredictable amount of time. • Fixed- Ratio Schedule: Reinforcement Schedule in which desired behavior is rewarded following a fixed number of behaviors. • Variable-Ratio Schedule: Reinforcement schedule in which desired behavior is rewarded following an unpredictable number of behaviors
Self learning SCHEDULE DEFINITION EXAMPLE RESPONSE PATTERN
Maintenance(维持) • Maintenance means the continuation of behavior.