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G- bacteria

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  1. G- bacteria Genera: Brucella, Fracisella, Bordetella, Alcaligenes, Acinetobcter Vibrionaceae, Aeromonadaceae

  2. O: Campylobacterales • F. Campylobacteriaceae • G: Campylobater • C. jejuni • Arcobater • F: Helicobacteriaceae • G: Helicobacter

  3. Genus: Campylobacter • Spiral or curved rods • motile • microaerofilic • carbohydrates are not utilized • oxidase positive • urease negative

  4. Campylobacter • Habitat:intestinal tracts of mammals and birds • Pathogenicity for animals and man (foodborne infections with C.jejuni)

  5. Campylobacter species • C. fetus • C.fetus subsp. fetus- oral infection- ovine abortion • C.fetus subsp. veneralis- veneric infection - bovine abortion and nfetility

  6. Campylobacter species • C.jejuni subsp. jejuni - normal intestinal flora in many animal species • - aetiol. agent of diarrhea in: • young animals • humans= campylobacteriosis • C.coli - normal intestinal flora in pigs and poultry

  7. Patogenesis of C.jejuni infection -intracellular infection • Adherence is mediated by bacterial proteins (attachment by fibronectin binding proteins..) • Invasion (depends on virulence) endocytosis (internalization) after 72 h period exponential growth is observed. • Bacterial cells can be found in granulocytes and monocytes • Inracellular survival in macrofages can contribute to disease severity and symptoms

  8. Genus: Helicobacter • helical or curved G- rods • motile • microaerophilic • oxidase positive • catalase postive • urease positive

  9. Helicobacter • Habitat: stomach , small intestine, liver • Pathogenicity for man and some animal species

  10. Helicobacter species • H.hepaticus - heatitis in mouse and rats • H.bilis-hepatitis in mouse • H.pylori - human gastritis (monkey-primates, and cat ? • H.felis-gastritis in cats and dogs • H.canis-gastroenteritis in dogs • H.pullorum- gastroenteritis

  11. Genus: Arcobacter • curved to spiral small rods • aerotolerant • catalase positive • DNAse positive • susceptible to nalidixic acid

  12. Arcobacter species • A.cryaerophilus- late term abortions in swine, cattle, horses, sheep and dogs • - mastitis in cows • A.butlzleri-diarrhea in humans and animals • A.skirrowii

  13. F: Brucellaceae • G: Brucella • B.melitensis • B.abortus, B. suis, • B.canis, B.ovis, B.neotomae

  14. G: Brucella (F.Brucellaceae) • G-, coccobacilli or rods, aerobic, • B.melitensis • brucelosis-zoonotic illness

  15. Clasical species • B.abortus (cattle-abortion, orchitis) • B.melitensis (goats-abortion, orchitis) • B.ovis (sheep - ram epididymitis) • B.suis (pigs, hares-abortion) • B.canis (dogs, epididymitis)

  16. F:Alcaligenaceae • G: Alcaligenes • Achromobacter • Bordetella

  17. G: Bordetella • G- rods, catalase+ • asaccharolytic • habitat: upper respiratory tract of mammals and birds

  18. Bordetella Species • B.pertussis (humans - whooping cough) • B.bronchiseptica (pig, dog, laboratory animals) • B.avium (turkey coryza)

  19. Alcaligenes • A.calcoaceticus

  20. G Moraxella • G- coccobacilli • M.bovis -pinkeye • M.ovis-pinkeye • M.canis- dog bite infections

  21. F:Francisellaceae • G: Fancisella • F. tularensis

  22. Francisella • F.tularensis • tularemia-zoonotic illeness • rodents-reservoir • vector-artropods (Dermacentor, Ixodes) • infection in mammals and birds • Cat (USA)

  23. Subsecies of F.tularensis • ssp.tularensis (North America) • holarctica (Asia nad Europe, NA) • mediaasiatica (Central Asia) • novicida (USA, Canada)

  24. Class Flavobacteria • O: Flavobacteriales • F: Flavobacteriaceae • Genera: • Flavobacterium • Capnocytophaga • Chryseobacterium • Ornithobacterium

  25. Class Betaproteobacteria • O: Burkholseriales • F: Burkholderiaceae • G: Burkholderia • F: Alcaligenaceae • G: Alcaligenes • Bordetella • Taylorella

  26. Ornitobacterium rhinothracheale • Hosts: Turkey, chickens, duks, geese • Respiratory disease, decreased egg production, artritis • 7 serotypes A- G • aerosacculitis, necrotizing pneumonia, suppurative pericarditis

  27. Diagnostics: • Cultivation on blood agar plates • Catalase -, oxydase ´+ • Gram staining • PCR identification • ATB • Resistance to aminoglycosides

  28. Burkholderia • B.mallei glanders (maleus) in horses, mules and donkeys • B.psudomallei- melioidosis or pseudoglanders in cat, cattlem dog, horse, pig, ruminants • Nodular form, or systemic • Habita: soil, surface water, rodents- a source o infection • Group B category of patogens

  29. Bordetella • B.bronchiseptica • B.avium

  30. Alcaligenes • A. faecalis • A.calcoaceticus

  31. Taylorella • T.equigenitalis • Contagious equine metritis

  32. Order: Pseudomonadales • F: Pseudomonadaceae • G: Pseudomonas • F: Moraxellaceae

  33. Pseudomonas • Habitat in soil, water, vegetation • Most important species: • P.aeruginosa • opportunistic pathogen in animals, humans • resistence to antibiotics is wide

  34. Pseudomonas species • P.aeruginosa- oportunistic pathogen • pyogenic infections in many animal species (mammals,birds, fish, snakes) • P.fluorescens- sporadic infections,patogenicity in poultry, fish and cattle

  35. Virulence factors of P. aeruginosa • Capsule/pilli • Proteases • Elastases • Phospholipase C • Rhamnolipid (lecithinase) • Toxins: cytotoxin, exotoxin A, endotoxin, pyocyanin, pyoverdin, both • Resistance to antibiotics

  36. F: Moraxellaceae • G: Moraxella • SG: Moraxella (rods) M. lacunata • SG:Branhamella (cocci) • G: Acinetobacter • A.calcoaceticus, A. abumanii

  37. Moraxella • M. bovis • Host: cattle- infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (pinkeye) • M.ovis – small ruminants : pinkeye • „M.equi“ – horse : conjunctivitis

  38. Family Enterobacteriaceae • Gr negative, non-sporing rods, 2-3 micrometers in lenth , often motile, capsulate or non capsulate, fimbriated, catalase positive, ferment glucose,oxydase negative, reduce nitrate to nitrite • easily cultivable on blood agar and Mac Conky agar • Habitat: intestine of animals and humans • may occur on plants and in the soil

  39. Family Enterobacteriaceae • Pathogens: E.coli (pathogenic strains), Salmonella, Yersinia • Oportunic pathogens: Proteus spp., Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter spp., • Other minor pathogns: Edwardsiella tarda, Morganella morganii, Serratia marcescens

  40. Genera

  41. Genera fermentering lactose (coliform bacteria) Escherichia Klebsiella Enterobacter Citrobacter Genera lactose negative: Salmonella Shigella (nonhuman primates) Proteus Plesiomonas Morganella Edwardsiella Yersinia Genera in family Enteroacteriaceae

  42. Fermentation of sugars ONPG test for beta galactosidase hydrogen sulfid production urea hydrolysis decarboxylases (arginine, lysine) Biochemical differntiation - commonly used tests

  43. Antigenic structure • O antigen- antigenic groups within a species • K antigen surfice antigen - enhance the virulece of bactria • H flagelar antigens • F fimbrial antigens (F4, F5, F6)

  44. Non pathogenic strains autochtonic microflora normal intestinal microflora Pathogenic strains Enterotoxigenic (ETEC) Enteropatogenic (EPEC) Enterohemorrhagic (EHEC) Necrotoxigenic (NTEC) Genus Escherichia

  45. E.coli pathogenic strains

  46. Succeptibility to: Colistine Acquired resistence to: ampicllin/amoxicillin fluorochinolones Acquired plasmid resistence streptomycine kanamycine gentamicine chloramphenicol tetracyclines sulfonamides Susceptibility to atimicrobial agents

  47. Salmonella (about 2500 serovars) • Habitat:parasites of animals and man • found in sawage and pond water • food borne infections (zoonoses) • Species: S.enterica (2443), S.bongori (20) • Antigenic structure: • The Kauffamann- White diagnostic scheme

  48. S. enterica • S.enterica subspecies (6): • S.enterica subsp.enterica • ..salamae, arizone, diarizone, houtenae, indica • Serovars of S.enterica subsp. enterica • S. Typhimurium DT 104 • S. Enteritidis

  49. S.Typhimurium S.Enteritidis S.Derby Animals - vertebrates, Humans Poultry- subclinical inf. Animals- enteritis Human -food borne inf. Catle, sheep, horse, dog- enteritis, septicemia Salmonella serovars non adapted to the host

  50. S.Choleraesuis S.Pullorum S.Gallinarum S.Dublin Pig- enterocolitis and septicemia Poultry(chickens), acute diarrhoeal diseases Poultry (broilers), fowl thyphoid Cattle, enteritis, septicemia Salmonella serovars with host specificity