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NATIONAL EDUCATION POLICY. INTRODUCTION. The main objectives of educational policy are: To fulfil development requirements; To create social integration and national unity. The task of nation-building would be difficult without social and political stability. COLONIAL EDUCATION POLICY.

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INTRODUCTION

The main objectives of educational policy are:

To fulfil development requirements;

To create social integration and national unity.

The task of nation-building would be difficult without social and political stability.


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COLONIAL EDUCATION POLICY

  • kept various communities as separate and distinct entities

  • education system developed into FOUR segregated streams:

    • English

    • Malay

    • Chinese

    • Tamil

  • each school had its own aims

  • each school had its own syllabus content


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TOWARDS THE CREATION OF A NATIONAL EDUCATION SYSTEM

THE CHEESEMAN PLAN

  • British began to take steps to streamline the education system to promote communal unity.

  • The Cheeseman Plan proposed:

  • Free places given to children attending vernacular primary schools.

  • English language used in all primary schools.

  • Two types of secondary schools be established.

  • Vocational education be implemented fully.

  • Was not carried out as rejected by Federal Legislative Council.

  • Reason: no element of unity


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THE BARNES REPORT

  • In 1950, the British formed a committee under L.J. Barnes to look into the education system.

  • The Barnes Report suggested:

  • Primary schools be made foundation of unity for people

  • Only national schools should exist in the country

  • Malay language – main language of instruction

  • English language – second medium of instruction

  • School-going age: 6-12 years old

  • Pupils in primary schools enter English secondary schools

  • Education be provided free

  • Local government must bear part of school expenses


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THE FENN-WU REPORT

  • Non-Malays opposed to Barnes Report – particularly Chinese

  • Appointed two experts in Chinese education to study the problems

    • Dr W.P. Fenn

    • Dr Wu Teh Yau

  • Suggestions:

  • Chinese language be made third language in school system

  • National type schools be continued

  • Education in Chinese schools should be Malayan-oriented


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THE 1952 EDUCATION ORDINANCE

  • Outcome of the integration of two earlier reports.

  • Main details of the Ordinance are:

  • Two types of school were recommended

    • Malay-medium schools

    • English-medium schools

  • Facilities prepared for the study of Chinese and Tamil

  • Chinese and Tamil schools be excluded from the national education system

  • English be taught from Standard 1 in Malay-medium schools

  • Malay to be taught from Standard 3 in English-medium schools

  • not implemented due to financial problems caused by economic recession


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THE RAZAK STATEMENT 1956

  • Committee was formed to prepare a national education system.

  • Headed by Dato’ Abdul Razak Hussein.

  • Proposal of the Razak Statement:

  • Every child be given opportunity for education

  • should be only one education system – the National Education System

  • Should be two types of school:

    • public schools using Malay as medium

    • public schools using English, Chinese or Tamil

  • Malay and English to be compulsory in all schools

  • Chinese and Tamil be taught if more than 15 students or if requested by parents

  • Aid to be given to all schools

  • National secondary schools to be established

    • national secondary schools

    • national type secondary schools


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THE RAHMAN TALIB STATEMENT 1960 and EDUCATION ACT 1961

  • Was released in 1960 and its proposals were included in Education Act of 1961.

  • Details of the act are:

  • Children in primary schools be given the opportunity to further studies in secondary schools

  • Education should be free

  • School-going age: 6 – 15 years old

  • Fail to enter academic schools – should admit to vocational schools

  • Curriculum and examination should be coordinated in both national and national-type schools

  • Malay as national language taught in all primary schools, replacing English as medium of instruction

  • Chinese and Tamil should be taught; should there be at least 15 pupils or parents request it

  • Islamic knowledge should be taught; should there be at least 15 Muslim students


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EDUCATION AFTER 1961

1961 – 1970

  • Aimed at improving the level of education in the rural regions through:

    • widening opportunities for pupils to further their education in secondary schools

    • improving pupils participation in secondary level education

      After 1970

  • Emphasized given to the quality of education as well as solidarity through:

    • renewing of curriculum

    • diversifying subjects offered in line with development of science and technology


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EDUCATION REFORMS

CABINET COMMITTEE

  • Chaired by Dr. Mahathir Mohamad and was formed in 1974.

  • To study the implementation of the National Education policy.

  • Released its findings, the Mahathir Report in 1979.

  • The report suggested:

  • Education should meet the country’s manpower needs, especially in science and technology

  • Education should foster development of noble values


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  • The objectives:

  • To improve the conditions and quality of the educational system;

  • To fix a system of education that is “flexible” to current development.

  • Consequent to this report, the New Primary School Curriculum (KBSR) was launched in 1983 and the New Secondary School Curriculum (KBSM) in 1989.


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THE SMART SCHOOL

  • The objectives:

  • To produce students to be thinking citizens with religious beliefs.

  • To create an atmosphere of teaching and learning that is in line with the latest development in education.

  • The main feature is the use of information technology in the process of teaching and learning.

  • It means that lesson in class will shift from being techer-centred to pupil-centred.

  • The school will cultivate the skills to solve problems in a creative manner to meet with the new situations.


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