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5 th session: Financial Accounting Measures of Performance. Performance Evaluation IMSc in Business Administration September 2010. Financial accounting measures of performance. Computing Earnings per Share (EPS). Computing Earnings per Share (EPS).

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5 th session financial accounting measures of performance

5th session:Financial Accounting Measures of Performance

Performance Evaluation

IMSc in Business Administration

September 2010

financial accounting measures of performance

Financial accounting measures of performance

Computing Earnings per Share (EPS)

computing earnings per share eps
Computing Earnings per Share (EPS)
  • Earnings per share indicates the income earned by each share of common stock.
  • Reported at the end of the income statement
  • Should report intermediate components as well.
eps on simple capital structure
EPS on Simple Capital Structure
  • Simple Capital Structure means that there is only common stock and there is no potential common stock (securities that can potentially be converted into common stock and dilute EPS).
preferred stock dividends
Preferred Stock Dividends
  • Preferred Stock Dividends are compensation not available for common stockholders, therefore they are subtracted from the Net Income.
weighted average number od shares outstanding
Weighted Average Number od Shares Outstanding
  • Weighted by the fraction of the period they are outstanding
  • Find the equivalent number of whole shares outstanding for the year.
stock dividends and stock splits
Stock Dividends and Stock Splits
  • When these happen computation of the average number of shares outstanding needs to be redone.
  • A stock dividend or split does not change the shareholders’ total investment.
complex capital structure
Complex Capital Structure
  • Dilutive securities are securities that can be converted into common stock (through conversion or exercise) and will dilute earnings per share.
diluted eps
Diluted EPS

Note that:

Only dilutive securities are to be reported! Antidilutive are not considered.

diluted eps convertible securities if converted method
Diluted EPS – Convertible SecuritiesIf-Converted Method
  • Conversion of the convertible securities as soon as possible (beginning of period or issuance)
  • Elimination of related interest, net of tax.
    • Logic is that if the convertible securities were converted, then they didn’t produce any interest and net income has to be filtered of this.
diluted eps options and warrants treasury stock method
Diluted EPS – Options and WarrantsTreasury Stock Method
  • Exercise of options or warrants as soon as possible (beginning of period or issuance)
  • Proceeds from the exercise are used to purchase common stock.
financial accounting measures of performance1

Financial accounting measures of performance

Financial Analysis through Ratio Computation – a shortcut to evaluating firm’s performances

limitations of financial ratios
Limitations of Financial Ratios
  • Not useful in isolation – only valid when compared to other firms or the company’s historical performance
  • Different accounting treatments – particularly when analyzing non-U.S. firms
  • Finding comparable industry ratios for companies that operate in multiple industries
  • All ratios must be viewed relative to one another
  • Determining the target or comparison value requires some range of acceptable values
financial ratios analyst evaluator considerations
Financial Ratios – Analyst/Evaluator Considerations
  • Do firms have similar accounting practices?
  • Are ratios comparable across firm divisions?
  • Do different ratios give consistent information?
  • Are the ratios reasonable for the industry?
interpreting ratios
Interpreting Ratios

1. Cross-sectional analysis:

Comparison to industry norm or average

2. Time-series analysis (trend analysis):

Comparison to a company’s past ratios

ratio analysis context
Ratio Analysis Context
  • Company goals and strategy
  • Industry norms
      • Ratios may be industry specific
      • Multiple lines of business distorts aggregate ratios
      • Differences in accounting methods
  • Economic conditions
      • Cyclical businesses and the stage of the business cycle
categories of ratios
Categories of Ratios

Efficiency of day-to-day tasks/operations

  • Activity
  • Liquidity
  • Solvency
  • Profitability
  • Valuation

Ability to meet short-term liabilities

Ability to meet long-term obligations

Ability to generate profitable sales from asset base

Quantity of asset or flow associated with an ownership claim

ratio analysis
Ratio Analysis

Some general rules:

  • For ratios that use only income statement items, use the values from the current income statement
  • For ratios using only balance sheet items, use the values from the current balance sheet
  • For ratios using both income statement and balance sheet items, use the value from the current income statement and the average value for the balance sheet item
integrated financial ratio approach
Integrated Financial Ratio Approach
  • Important to analyze all ratios collectively
  • Use information from one ratio category to answer questions raised by another ratio
  • Classic example = DuPont analysis
dupont system original equation
DuPont System: Original Equation

Net Income

ROE =

Average Equity

Net Income

Revenue

Revenue

Average Total Assets

Average Total Assets

Average Equity

×

×

Net Profit Margin

Asset Turnover

Leverage

dupont system extended equation
DuPont System: Extended Equation

Average Total Assets

Average Equity

Net Income

Revenue

Revenue

Average Total Assets

×

×

EBIT

Revenue

EBT

EBIT

Net Income

EBT

×

×

EBIT Margin

Interest Burden

Tax Burden

dupont system extended equation1
DuPont System: Extended Equation

EBIT Margin

Interest Burden

Tax Burden

Asset Turnover

×

×

×

×

Leverage

Operating Profit Margin

1 – Effective Tax Rate

per share ratios for valuation
Per Share Ratios – for Valuation

Price Per Share

P

=

E

Earnings Per Share

Price Per Share

P

=

CF

Cash Flow Per Share

Price Per Share

P

=

S

Sales Per Share

Price Per Share

P

=

BV

Book Value Per Share

per share quantities
Per-Share Quantities

NI – Pref Div

Basic EPS

=

Weighted Ave # Ordinary Shares

Income Adjusted for Dilutive Securities

Diluted EPS

=

Weighted Ave # Shares Adjusted for Dilution

CFO

Cash Flow per Share

=

Weighted Ave # Shares

dividend related quantities
Dividend Related Quantities

Common Dividend

Dividend Payout Ratio

=

Net Income – Pref Div

Net Income attributable to common shares

Net income attributable to common shares – common dividend

Retention Rate (b)

=

Net income attributable to common shares

dividend related quantities1
Dividend Related Quantities

Sustainable Growth Rate

=

b × ROE

Retention Rate

1 – Dividend Payout Ratio

Return on Equity

sustainable growth rate problem
Sustainable Growth Rate – Problem

A firm has a dividend payout ratio of 35%, a net profit margin of 10%, an asset turnover of 1.4, and an equity multiplier leverage measure of 1.2. Estimate the firm’s sustainable growth rate.

Growth rate =b × ROE

(1 – 0.35)

0.1 × 1.4 × 1.2

= 0.1092

= 10.92%

evaluating past financial performance
Evaluating Past Financial Performance
  • How have key ratios changed and why?
  • How do key ratios and trends compare with competitors/industry?
  • What aspects of performance are critical for a competitive advantage?
  • How did the company perform in these areas?
  • What is the company’s business model and strategy – are they reflected in key measures?
projecting performance
Projecting Performance
  • Forecast expected GDP growth
  • Forecast expected industry sales based on historical relationship with GDP
  • Consider expected change of firm’s market share
  • Forecast expected firm sales
  • Use historical margins for stable firms (gross, operating, net) or individual forecast for each expense item
    • Remove nonrecurring items
    • Historical margins are not relevant to new, volatile, or high fixed-cost industries