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israeli arab conflict
Israeli/Arab Conflict
  • Can We Blame it on the Brits?

(For a change)

current situation
Current Situation
  • West Bank
  • Gaza Strip
  • Golan Heights
  • Hamas
  • Fatah
  • Ben Gurion Quote
the israeli palestinian dispute
The Israeli-Palestinian Dispute
  • The Ottoman Empire, The “Sick Man of Europe”
  • Theodor Herzl and the Zionist Congress
  • Hussein-McMahon Correspondence 1915-16
  • Sykes-Picot Agreement 1916
  • Lawrence of Arabia & The Arab Revolt 1917-18
  • Balfour Declaration 1917
  • Churchill White Paper 1922
  • British Mandate 1919-1948
  • The Israeli War for Independence 1948
  • Implications for Today
the zionist movement
The Zionist Movement
  • Theodor Binyamin Herzl, a journalist & Hungarian Jew who lived in Vienna, wrote a book called, Judenstadt, “The Jewish State”
  • Virulent anti-Semitism in Russia & France (Evidenced by Dreyfuss Affair)
  • 1896, 1st World Zionist Congress.
  • British offer land in East Africa
hussein mcmahon correspondence
Hussein-McMahon Correspondence
  • 1915-1916 exchange of letters between the Sharif of Mecca, Hussein bin Ali, and Sir Henry McMahon, British High Commissioner in Egypt, concerning the future political status of the Arab lands of the Middle East.
  • The United Kingdom was seeking to bring about an armed revolt against the Ottoman Empire, a German ally during WWI. The letters indicated independence for all Arab land south of the 37th parallel would be the reward for Arab assistance.
the sykes picot agreement
The Sykes-Picot Agreement
  • Secret understanding between the governments of Britain, Czarist Russia and France defining their respective spheres of post-WWI influence and control in the Middle East, after the expected downfall of the Ottoman Empire, The boundaries of this agreement still remain in much of the common border between Syria, Jordan and Iraq.
british victory in wwi
British Victory in WWI
  • General Allenby takes Jerusalem in 1918
  • The Arab armies under Lawrence & Prince Feisel take Damascus first
  • League of Nations give British Mandate in Palestine
the balfour declaration
The Balfour Declaration
  • Foreign Office

November 2nd, 1917.Dear Lord Rothschild,I have much pleasure in conveying to you, on behalf of His Majesty's Government, the following declaration of sympathy with Jewish Zionist aspirations which has been submitted to, and approved by, the Cabinet:"His Majesty's Government view with favour the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people, and will use their best endeavours to facilitate the achievement of this object, it being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine, or the rights and political status enjoyed by Jews in any other country".I should be grateful if you would bring this declaration to the knowledge of the Zionist Federation.Yours sincerelyArthur James Balfour

the churchill white paper
The Churchill White Paper
  • Winston Churchill, then colonial secretary, warned against establishing a Jewish State in 1922
  • The Balfour Declaration established a Jewish Homeland, not state
  • The Balfour Declaration stated not a homeland “OF” Palestine, but “IN” Palestine
the churchill white paper1
The Churchill White Paper
  • stated that the Balfour Declaration could not be amended and that the Jews were in Palestine by right, but it partitioned the area of the Mandate by excluding the area east of the Jordan River from Jewish settlement. That land, 76% of the original Palestine Mandate by area but mostly very sparsely populated desert, was renamed TransJordan and was given to the Hashemite Emir Abdullah, son of King Hussein of Hejaz, a reward by the British for the Hashemite family's help in the fight against the Ottomans. Today it is the Kingdom of Jordan ruled by Abdullah's great-grandson, Abdullah II.

Sixty five years later, in 2002, British Foreign Secretary Jack Straw observed "A lot of the problems we are having to deal with now, I have to deal with now, are a consequence of our colonial past. .. ..The Balfour Declaration and the contradictory assurances which were being given to Palestinians in private at the same time as they were being given to the Israelis - again, an interesting history for us but not an entirely honourable one."

the british mandate
The British Mandate
  • 80K Jews in Palestine at the end of WWI (10% of population)
  • World Zionist org established Jewish Agency in Palestine, David Ben Gurion, 1st leader
  • British High Commissioner Sir Herbert Samuel, an English Jew
the british mandate1
The British Mandate
  • 1920-1932 100k Jewish immigrants
  • Histadrut, Jewish Labor Front, begins to buy land from Turkish, Armenian & Greek absentee landlords
  • Hitler elected in Germany 1933
  • 1933-35 over 145K Jewish immigrants
  • Arabs demand democracy
the arab insurgency
The Arab Insurgency
  • 1929 Wailing Wall incidents
  • 1936 Arab High Committee demands British stop immigration and land transfer, call for democracy
  • During the Arab Insurgency, 10% of adult male Arab population either killed, wounded or imprisoned
  • Wingate “night squads” (including Moshe Dayan)
  • 36-38 successful rural insurgency forces House of Commons to end Jewish immigration - Peel Report
the jewish insurgency
The Jewish Insurgency
  • Jewish Defense Agency “Haganah” & splinter group “Irgun” (led by Menachim Begin)
  • WWII brought about tough urban insurgency & terrorist campaign against the British
  • Jewish agency secretly continues immigration
  • Nov 44, British High Commissioner in Egypt assassinated by Irgun
  • July 46, Begin bombs King David Hotel in Jerusalem, 90 Brits killed, half were Jews
  • British refer problem to UN and leave in May of 48
un partition plan for palestine
UN Partition Plan for Palestine
  • UN General Assembly Res. 181, was to resolve the Arab-Israeli conflict in the British Mandate of Palestine. The plan would have partitioned Palestine into Jewish and Arab states, with the greater Jerusalem area, under international control.
the 1948 israeli war for independence
The 1948 Israeli War for Independence
  • November 29th 1948, the day after the UN general Assembly passed Res. 181., Arabs riot throughout Palestine, 7 Jews are killed
  • Jews are now about 30% of all Palestine population (about 600K)
  • Newly established Arab league calls for military assistance for Palestinians
the 1948 israeli war for independence1
The 1948 Israeli War for Independence
  • The British Mandate ends on May 15th, David Ben-Gurion declares independence for Israel
  • The next day, the new Jewish state is attacked by the armies of Egypt, Transjordan, Syria, Lebanon, Yemen & Iraq with the help of Saudi Arabia
  • By summer of 1949, Israel has signed armistices with Egypt, Lebanon, Transjordan, & Syria.
  • In victory, Israel’s new borders comprise 78% of Mandatory Palestine, 50% more than the UN partition proposal allotted it.
  • The Gaza Strip and the West Bank were occupied by Egypt and Transjordan respectively.
the 1948 israeli war for independence2
The 1948 Israeli War for Independence
  • Israel lost about 1% of its population in the war: 6,373 of its people. About 4,000 were soldiers and the rest were civilians.
  • 600k Jews vs. 40 million arabs
palestinian refugee problem
Palestinian Refugee Problem
  • The UN estimates 700,000 Palestinian refugees leave the expanded territory of the Israeli state
  • Where are they Now?
the roots to modern conflict
The Roots to Modern Conflict
  • British rule
  • The 1948 War
  • The Six Day War
  • The Yom Kippur War (1973)
the lebanese civil war
The Lebanese Civil War

The French Mandate

The National Pact

The Syrian Incursion

The Israeli Invasion

the 1983 beirut bombing
The 1983 Beirut Bombing

Did President Reagan understand the Lebanese Civil War?

the roots to modern conflict1
The Roots to Modern Conflict
  • 1982: Israel invades southern Lebanon
  • 1987: The first Palestinian Intifada
  • 2000: Second Intifada
  • 2006 Gaza Incursion
obstacles to peace
Obstacles to Peace
  • Right of Return
  • Settlements in the West Bank & East Jerusalem
  • Jerusalem Capital
  • Jordon River Water
  • Hamas