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Endocrine System. Jordan S. Kelsey G. Jena P. Sam P. Endocrine System. A network of glands that secrete hormones, which travel in the bloodstream and affect the functioning of target cells. Function. Work alongside the nervous system

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endocrine system

Endocrine System

Jordan S.

Kelsey G.

Jena P.

Sam P.

endocrine system1
Endocrine System
  • A network of glands that secrete hormones, which travel in the bloodstream and affect the functioning of target cells
function
Function
  • Work alongside the nervous system
  • Maintaining homeostasis throughout the body through feedback mechanisms
endocrine vs exocrine
Endocrine vs. Exocrine

Endocrine

Exocrine

Secrete fluids out of the body

Ex: Sweat and oils

  • Secrete hormones into the internal environment
  • Diffuse into the interstitial fluid into the bloodstream and act on target cells
hormones
Hormones
  • Most are steroids synthesized from cholesterol
  • Or they are amines, peptides, proteins or glycoproteins produced from amino acids, or non-steroid hormones
  • Stimulate changes in target cells
steroid hormones
Steroid Hormones
  • Cannot dissolve in water but can in lipid
  • Thus allowing them to enter through the target cell membrane
  • Steroid bonds to a receptor and triggers transcription of specific regions of DNA resulting in mRNA
  • Weakly bound to plasma
  • Released in large quantities near their target cells
steroid video
Steroid Video
  • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CaMKuXKZ70g
non steroid hormones
Non-Steroid Hormones
  • Usually bind receptors in target cell membranes
  • Activates adenylatecylase
  • Then catalyzes conversion of ATP to cAMP
  • cAMP promotes a series of reactions leading to cellular changes linked with the hormones action
  • These hormones do not penetrate the cell membrane into the nucleus as steroid hormones do
secretion
Secretion
  • Nervous system works to control secretion within the endocrine system
  • Nerve impulse is transmitted through the neuron
  • Reaches the glandular cells to secrete a hormone into the bloodstream or to stop the hormone
  • Hormone responds to target cells
  • Has no effect on other cells
location
Location
  • Endocrine glands are located in:
    • Brain
    • Throat
    • Upper abdominal region
    • Pelvic Region
  • Secrete hormones internally
pituitary gland
Pituitary Gland

Located at the base of the brain where the pituitary stalks connect it to the hypothalamus

Anterior

Posterior

Antidiuretic hormone

Oxytocin

  • Growth hormone
  • Prolactin
  • Thyroid Stimulating hormone
  • Adrenocorticotropic hormone
  • Follicle stimulating hormone
  • Luteinizing hormone
hypothalamus
Hypothalamus
  • Attached to the pituitary gland by the pituitary stalk
  • In charge of releasing the nerve impulses to the posterior pituitary which then signals the hormone release
  • Controls the secretion of the anterior pituitary
  • Thyrotropic releasing hormone
  • Corticotropin releasing hormone
thyroid gland
Thyroid Gland
  • Located just below the larynx on either side and in front of the trachea
  • Thyroxine
  • Triodothyronine
  • Calcitonin
adrenal glands
Adrenal Glands

Adrenal Medulla

Adrenal Cortex

Aldosterone

Cortisol

Sex hormones

  • Consists of 2 parts: adrenal medulla and the adrenal cortex
  • The adrenal glad is located right above the kidneys
  • Epinephrine
  • Norepinephrine
reproductive glands
Reproductive Glands

Ovaries

Testes

Testosterone

  • 2 Main reproductive organs that secrete important hormones are the ovaries and testes
  • Located in the pelvic region of the body
  • Estrogen
  • Progesterone
pancreas
Pancreas
  • Digestive juice secreting exocrine gland
  • A hormone secreting endocrine gland located posterior to the stomach and behind the parietal peritoneum
  • Glucagon
  • Insulin
pineal gland
Pineal Gland
  • Located deep between the cerebral hemispheres
  • Attaches to the upper portion of the thalamus
  • Melatonin
parathyroid
Parathyroid
  • Usually 4 parathyroid glands
  • Located on the posterior surface of the thyroid gland
  • Parathyroid hormone(PTH)
thymus
Thymus
  • Lies in the mediastinum posterior to the sternum and between the lungs
  • Large in young kids but shrinks after puberty and with age
  • Thymosins
negative feedback systems
Negative Feedback Systems
  • A way of controlling hormone secretion
  • An endocrine gland or system controlling it senses the concentration of the hormone the gland secretes, a process the hormone controls, or an action the hormone has on the internal environment
diseases
Diseases
  • Diabetes: person has high blood glucose
    • Insulin production in inadequate or the body’s cells do not respond properly to insulin, or both
  • Adrenocortical Carcinoma: rare disease in which malignant(cancer) cells form in the outer layer of the adrenal gland
diseases continued
Diseases Continued
  • Growth Disorders
    • body produces too much growth hormone, gigantism or acromegaly can occur
    • Too little growth hormone results a condition called growth hormone deficiency
    • Can cause children to grow more slowly than normal
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