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LECTURE 2 ENERGY ABUNDANCE. Dr. Rostamkolai. ECE 371 Sustainable Energy Systems. HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE. There has been a continuous quest for using readily available energy sources by humans The history of earth in terms of time and energy are summarized in the following tables.

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lecture 2 energy abundance

LECTURE 2ENERGY ABUNDANCE

Dr. Rostamkolai

ECE 371

Sustainable Energy Systems

historical perspective
HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE
  • There has been a continuous quest for using readily available energy sources by humans
  • The history of earth in terms of time and energy are summarized in the following tables
historical perspective3
HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE
  • Growth in energy consumption with stages of human development is shown below (kWh/cap-day)
characteristics of an industrial nation
CHARACTERISTICS OF AN INDUSTRIAL NATION
  • The degree of national industrialization of the world’s nations place them into the following three categories
    • Developed
    • Developing
    • Undeveloped
characteristics of an industrial nation1
CHARACTERISTICS OF AN INDUSTRIAL NATION
  • The key indicators that determine in which of these categories a nation belongs are
    • Energy resources
    • Affluence
    • Trends into the future
  • These are measurable
characteristics of an industrial nation2
CHARACTERISTICS OF AN INDUSTRIAL NATION
  • Technology makes it possible to process natural energy resources into a larger variety of forms suitable for various applications
    • One indicator of the degree of industrialization is the kind of energy used in the national economy
      • Highly industrialized nations use higher-specific-energy fuels
characteristics of an industrial nation3
CHARACTERISTICS OF AN INDUSTRIAL NATION
  • A second indicator is the amount of energy used measured in
    • kWh/Capita
    • kWh/$GDP
      • Again, highly industrialized nations consume more energy per Capita or $GDP
characteristics of an industrial nation5
CHARACTERISTICS OF AN INDUSTRIAL NATION
  • A third indicator is the efficiency of utilization of the energy supply
    • This indicator does not clearly show that the higher the degree of industrialization, the higher the efficiency of energy consumption
      • it is not as transparent as the other indicators
characteristics of an industrial nation6
CHARACTERISTICS OF AN INDUSTRIAL NATION
  • Affluence is measured by the standard of living
    • The indicators are
      • Economic growth ($GDP/Capita)
      • The degree of impact of nation’s affluence on other nations
      • The degree of impact on the global environment
characteristics of an industrial nation7
CHARACTERISTICS OF AN INDUSTRIAL NATION
  • Trends into the future include
    • Social aspects of disproportionate shares of energy utilization (kWh/Capita)
    • Types of fuel used (capital or income)
    • The choice between convenience and conservation by a nation’s population
energy power
ENERGY & POWER
  • Energy (W) is defined as the capacity of doing work, and it is expressed in terms of
    • kWh
    • BTU
    • Calorie (Clement 1824, pre-SI)
    • ft-lb
    • J
energy power1
ENERGY & POWER
  • Power (P) is defined as the time rate of doing work (P =dW/dt), and is expressed in terms of
    • kW
    • HP
    • ft-lb/min
  • There are two types of energy resources
    • Primary – Nonrenewable
    • Secondary - Renewable
capital income energy resources
CAPITAL & INCOME ENERGY RESOURCES
  • Primary energy resources are capital energy resources
    • Implying expenditure from a one-time estate without replenishment (use it and lose it)
      • Consists of fossil fuels (coal, oil, natural gas), which require millions of years for geologic replacement
      • Also includes nuclear fuel (uranium), which are transformable but irreplaceable
capital income energy resources1
CAPITAL & INCOME ENERGY RESOURCES
  • Secondary energy resources are income energy resources
    • Implying expenditure of replenished resources

without loss of capital

      • Include the potential for lunar energy
        • Consists of ocean tides
        • Also includes thermal, hydro, wind, and biomass
  • The quest for comfort and ease of energy utilization led to discovery of electricity, which is about 190 years old
capital income energy resources2
CAPITAL & INCOME ENERGY RESOURCES
  • The fuel mix in the U.S. from 1925 through 2000, compiled from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), is shown below (in %)
growth in energy consumption
GROWTH IN ENERGY CONSUMPTION
  • The energy consumption in the U.S. from 1900 to 2000 is shown below
trends in energy consumption
TRENDS IN ENERGY CONSUMPTION
  • The electric energy generation in U.S. from 1950 to 2000 is shown below
energy intensity
ENERGY INTENSITY
  • The energy intensity for the U.S. and the world from 1990 to 2000 is shown below

Quads = 1 x 1015 BTU BTU = 2.928 x 10-4 kWh

energy intensity1
ENERGY INTENSITY
  • The projection of energy intensities for the U.S. and the world from 2005 to 2050 is shown below
energy consumption
ENERGY CONSUMPTION
  • The projection of energy consumption in the U.S. from 2000 to 2025 is shown below
conclusions
CONCLUSIONS
  • In conclusion
    • There has been a growth of energy consumption after the industrial revolution
    • Accelerated growth during this period resulted from technical advances by industrial nations
    • Usage of secondary energy resources were replaced by primary energy resources (change from income to capital resources)
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