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Rock Layers. Compaction. Happens when pressure is applied to a material (over long periods of time). Cementation. Involves the deposition of a cementing matrix in the pore spaces between the grains of sediment. Before cementation (notice the air spaces). horizontal. Level- like a floor

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compaction
Compaction
  • Happens when pressure is applied to a material (over long periods of time)
cementation
Cementation
  • Involves the deposition of a cementing matrix in the pore spaces between the grains of sediment
horizontal
horizontal
  • Level- like a floor
  • Not higher on one side or the other
principle of original horizontality
Principle of Original Horizontality
  • Each new deposit of sediment forms a new horizontal layer on top of the layer below
slide8
PRINCIPLE OF ORIGINAL HORIZONTALITY
  • • Sedimentary and extrusive igneous rocks are originally laid down in horizontal layers
  • • any change from that is viewed as a disturbance of those layers (something happened later)
  • folding, tilting (occur during mountain-building events, for example)
  • sedimentary and igneous extrusive rocks that are folded or tilted must have first been deposited in horizontal layers before being folded or tilted.
  • 1. layer deposited
  • 2. layer deposited
  • 3. layer deposited
  • 4. all three layers are tilted

Label the above (1-4)

uniform
Uniform
  • The way things happen today is the same way things have always happened
uniformitarianism
Uniformitarianism
  • Means that the present is the key to the past