Generating & Testing Hypotheses Research-Based Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement Compiled from: Classroom Instruction That Works! By: Robert J. Marzano, Debra J. Pickering & Jane E. Pollock Classroom Instruction That Works! Facilitator’s Manual By: McREL Classroom Instruction That Works! Participant’s Manual By: McREL Curriculum & Staff Development Center
Training Objectives Participants will: • Understand the purpose of generating and testing hypotheses as it relates to student learning. • Know and understand the two approaches of using this strategy in the classroom setting • Identify ways to integrate this strategy across the disciplines
Generating and Testing Hypotheses Enhance students’ understanding of and ability to use knowledge by engaging them in mental processes that involve making and testing hypotheses.
Table Activity Complete the graphic organizer handout by writing words that you associate with “generating & testing hypotheses”. Add more spokes if you need.
Graphic Organizer Hand=Out Generate and test hypotheses
Four Planning Questions for Instruction Generating & Testing Hypotheses
Generalizations from the Research on Generating & Testing Hypotheses • The generating and testing of hypotheses can be approached in an inductive or deductive manner. • Teachers should ask students to clearly explain their hypotheses and their conclusions.
Deductive Thinking …..is the process of using a general rule to make a prediction. Inductive Thinking ….. is the process of drawing new conclusions based on information we know or are presented with. The Two Approaches
Recommendations for Classroom Practice • Make sure students can explain their hypotheses and conclusions. • Use a variety of structured tasks to guide students through generating and testing hypotheses.
Recommendation # 2 Use a variety of structured tasks to guide students through generating and testing hypotheses. • Decision Making • Problem Solving • Invention • Experimental Inquiry • Historical Investigation
Recommendation # 1 Make sure students can explain their hypotheses and conclusions. • Provide students a set of steps for the task. • Use familiar content to teach the students the steps in the process. • Use graphic organizers to record information when carrying out the process.
Decision Making: ~ is about choosing an option around a decision that needs to be made and examining criteria and alternatives related to that decision.
Problem Solving: ~ is about removing constraints or barriers to find the best solution to an unstructured problem.
Invention: ~ involves creating something to fit a need or to improve upon something that already exists in order to make it better.
Experimental Inquiry: ~ is the process of developing and testing hypotheses of things we observe.
Historical Investigation: ~ is the process of identifying and resolving issues or contradictions from history about which there is confusion.
Systems Analysis ~ is the process of analyzing the parts of systems and the way they work together.
Classroom Example Model of the decision making process using the context of the family vacation.
Group Activity Using the Decision Making strategy, work with your partners to create your matrices. 1. Identify a decision that must be made in your school. 2. Identify the criteria on which the decision will be made and the possible alternatives. 3. Assign weights to each criterion, assign a rating and complete the matrix.
Key Points • Techniques for generating and testing hypotheses may be inductive or deductive. • Techniques for generating ideas and testing hypotheses that are more deductive in nature seem to have a greater effect on achievement than inductive techniques. • There are a variety of structural tasks that can be used to help students through the process of generating and testing hypotheses.
Reflection on Learning • What have you learned about generating and testing hypotheses? • What questions do you have about generating and testing hypotheses? • What changes might you make in your practice related to generating and testing hypotheses? • What support might you need to make these changes?