VALUE ADDITION TO FRUITS AND VEGETABLES. DR.V.VIJAYA LAKSHMI ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR, DEPARTMENT OF FOODS & NUTRITION, COLLEGE OF HOME SCIENCE, HYDERABAD –4 E mail : firstname.lastname@example.org.
DEPARTMENT OF FOODS & NUTRITION,
COLLEGE OF HOME SCIENCE,
E mail : email@example.com
Introduction:With the continuous increase in the population, efforts are required to feed additional 15million people every year.enhancing food production does not answer this problem because all foods particularly fruits and vegetables are perishables and seasonal. unless excess production is processed and preserved, it will be wasted. today only 1.0% of the total fruits and vegetables produced are processed in the 3000 food industries in the country. although India is the second largest producer of fruits and vegetables only 2% is being commercially processed wastage is estimated to be very high and value addition is constrained by long chain with too many intermediaries making scale efficiencies difficult.
Introduction:much progress has been made in the last two to three decades regarding the development of processed fruit and vegetable products. considerable amount of research and development has been carried out in research institutions, universities, experimental stations to standardize varieties, post harvest handling, storage, transportation, processing, product development, packaging etc. some of these process technologies and products have considerable potential for establishing fruits and vegetable industry in rural areas.
Introduction: some of these process technologies and products have considerable potential for establishing fruits and vegetable industry in rural areasIn India the food processing is divided into organized and unorganized sectors. The food processing industry depends upon agricultural production for supply of raw material and so far the country has been self sufficient in this aspect.food industry contributes 18% GNP and employs 1.5million workers i.e., about 20% of our industrial labour. In India, the value addition of food production is only 7% compared to 23% in China, 45% in Phillipines or 188% in UK
Introduction:there are two types of procesed foods :a. Basic foods such as atta (wheat flour), milk, poultry etc.b. Niche products such as breakfast cereals, jams, sauces etc.to be competitive in the market whether national or international, we will have to keep updated about new developments in food industry abroad, innovate and do R&D to bring un value added convenient products which should be made available to the consumer at affordable prices.
Introduction:the continuous thrust shall be to reduce cost, improve quality, improve convenience so as to attract consumers to buy.whenever the price of tomatoes sky rocket, people start purchasing tomato puree in tetra packs. Otherwise there is no demand which clearly shows that the prices of the products should be in tune with market prices of fresh produce to attract consumers.to be successful, one should not consider preservation as the only reason for processing. Processed food products have to give something extra to the consumers and it will have to be explained and convinced. In season, processed food products have to show benefits to counter higher prices.
Let us see the various methods of food processing and the recent trends:1. Food irradiation : This is a new addition to the methods of food preservation. It is an effective and safe method in which food is exposed to ionizing energy under controlled conditions. Irradiation does not leave any residue in food like chemicals and hence it is safe. It is cleared in more than 40 countries.•food irradiation inhibits sprouting in tuber and bulb crops•delays ripening of fruits eg. Banana•extends shelf life of meat and meat products
•increases food safety by eliminating non spore forming microorganisms• decontaminates spices such as black pepper, red chillies, other whole spices and spice powder without affecting their aroma•sterilizes meat and meat products in frozen state packed in laminated pouches which can then be stored at ambient for long time.•generally no nutritional losses take place.Food irradiation is going to become a very important method of food preservation in future.
2. Non thermal processes for food processing a. Membrane technology :Mainly used for water treatment and waste water treatment. Different types of membranes and membrane systems have been developed. Nano-filtration, ultra filtration and reverse osmosis separation processes use membrane technology. Ultra filtration membranes are widely used in food industry applications.Saves huge energy while concentrating fruit and vegetable juices. For initial concentration membrane technology is used and final concentration heat processing is used. It saves energy as well as gives better quality product due to reduced heat treatment.
b. Pulsed electrical fields (PEF):cool pulsed electrical field process developed by pure pulses technology for antimicrobial treatment of liquids and pumpable foods results into improved flavor and nutritional properties, extended shelf life and destruction of both spoilage organisms and pathogens. c. Ultra high pressure (UHP):used to pasteurize fruit juices for 2 minutes at 60,000 psi. It can handle particulates up to half inch size.3. Food preservation through packaging innovation :Controlled modified atmosphere (CA/MA) storage and packaging has emerged as most significant food preservation technology. This is called modified atmosphere packaging (MAP).It extends the shelf life of the product. It does not require any additives and involves nil or least processing.
4. Enzymes in fruit processing industry :Enzymes make things happen and at a faster rate. They breakdown components to make something more useful. Enzymes are used for cheese making, by citrus processors to decrease viscosity of concentrate, to increase yield of fruit juices, to dissolve albedo portion of citrus fruit, to make gelatin from cattle hide, broth and broth flavors from chicken carcasses.
5. Fabricated foods :To increase the quantity and variety of foods available to man. Food fabrication means to put together various nutrients in the desired proportion and imparting to such a composite, organoleptic qualities through the use of additives and suitable processing. Results in development of more economical substitutes of analogs eg. Margarine to replace butter, textured vegetable protein, soy milk equivalent to dairy milk.Fabricated foods are developed to meet the needs of metabolically handicapped eg. Eggless mayonnaise, lactose free food based on soy protein, non nutritive sweetners etc.
6. Hurdle technology of food safety :A combination of factors like pH, temperature etc successively weaken the target micro organisms thus keeping them under control. It is often seen that combination of hurdles will act synergistically at concentrations much lower than those used singly. The usefulness of hurdle technology lies in the fact that it is possible to achieve high levels of safety assurance using relatively mild combination treatments. This allows for the development of fresher, more natural foods with desired organoleptic characteristics.
7. Heat processing:In India, major thrust in fruits and vegetables processing is by heat processing i.e., canning and dehydration. Major units for fruits and vegetables processing in India is canning. A. Asceptic packaging :a new technology for asceptic packaging i. e. processing of fruit juice / concentrate that entered India, is Bag-in-Box filling method where a sterile product is filled in sterile pack under sterile conditionsB. Dehydration :dehydrated products like onion, egg powder, tomato powder etc did not succeed as yet but only baby foods plants worked well.Freeze drying where the product is first frozen and then dehydrated by applying vacuum is becoming popular because it gives an excellent quality product.
6. Refrigeration processing :Freezing technology for fruits and vegetables was used since last 25 years . Popular for green peas and mango pulp. Method of freezing used is blast freezing. Now it is Individual Quick Freezing (IQF). In this each piece is frozen by fluidization. Results in s better quality product. Used
Some value added products of fruits and vegetables Fruit Toffees Fruit Toffee is a highly nutritious product as compared to sugar boiled confectionery. It is made from pulp of mango and other fruits along with certain ingredients. Small and cottage scale manufacture of fruit toffee provides potential avenues for self employment in the area where the fruits are available. Although fruit toffees are being made in the organized sector, there exists a vest potential for cottage scale production also
Fruit BarsFruit bar is a concentrated fruit product meant for ready consumption. It has a good shelf life. Any variety of pulpy fruits, e.g. mango, guava, papaya, banana, apple etc. singly or in combination can be used for manufacture. Fruit bars are becoming increasingly popular due to good shelf life, taste, flavour and texture.
Fruit Jams and Jellies These products are prepared by boiling the fruit pulp with sufficient quantity of sugar to a moderately thick consistency. The popular varieties of jam are pineapple, mango, mixed fruit, strawberry, grape, apricot and among jellies, guava and apple. The product is used as a bread spread and is also taken along with chapati, puri or similar products. Jams, jellies and marmalades share approximately 17% of the total processed fruit and vegetable products.
Improved Murabba MakingMurabba is one of the indigenous sweet preparations of the country. Murabba made from amla, bael, myrobalan, carrot, apple, mango, citrus peels are quite popular. The traditional method of the preparation requires a long processing time and does not ensure good keeping quality for the product often spoils due to miocrobial fermentation. The method has been improved to obtain murabba in a shorter period with good keeping quality, attractive translucent appearance and desirable texture.
Tutty Fruity Fruits generally used for making preserves/ candies are apple, amla, papaya, mango, strawberry, raspberry, pear, cherry, etc. Among these raw papaya is largely used to make tutti-fruity used in bakery products, sweetmeats, ice creams, salads and pan.The candied fruits and vegetables are quite popular food items. The consumption of these products is rapidly increasing
Osmo-air dried FruitsOsmo air- dried fruits are based on a novel approach towards dehydration. Slices of ber, pineapple, jackfruit, mango, etc. are processed in two stages. The first phase is the removal of most of the water using sugar syrup as an osmotic agent. The second phase is air drying where the moisture content is further reduced to about 15%. The osmo-air dehydrated product is near to the fresh fruit in terms of colour, flavour and texture. The product can be used in ready -to –eat type foods, ice cream, fruit salad, kheer, cakes and bakery products. Such osmo-air dried fruit based units can be set up in areas near fruit orchards to the benefit of people. The process is simple and involves operations like selection of fruits, cleaning, washing, peeling, curing and slicing/ dicing. The prepared fruit slices are steeped in sugar solution to remove water by osmosis. The slices are then drained, dried in a hot air drier and packed in flexible pouches.
Grape Raisins Dried grapes are used in various food preparations and considered as a delicacy for direct consumption. Manufacture of raisins can be an important industry in the grape growing areas. An improved method has been developed which can easily be adopted. The process consists of washing, alkali treatment, sulphitation, drying in sun or in dehydraters.Any grape variety with high sugar and low acid content can be used yielding a good quality product. No sophisticated equipment is needed and the unit can be installed in orchards. It can generate rural employment.
Dry ApricotsApricot is an important fruit cultivated in the temperate regions. The dry fruit forms an important item of confection. The fully ripe fruits are harvested item of confection. The fully ripe fruits are harvested and placed in a wooden sulfuring chamber wherein yellow sulphur is burnt at the rate 4g/kg fruit. Sulfured fruits are dried in a solar drier for 5-7 days till the moisture content is about 17%. The dry fruits are packed in polythene bags for storage and marketing
Dehydrated VegetablesVegetables are seasonal and perishable. Dehydration is one of the methods to preserve them and make available throughout the year in hygienic conditions at reasonable cost. The dehydrated vegetables are easy to transport and cater to the needs of large catering establishments. They can be used in various preparations at any season of the year. Traditional sundrying is time consuming, less hygienic and climate dependent.The process for controlled dehydration of vegetables consists of grading/ sorting, washing, peeling/ trimming, size reduction, blanching, Chemical treatment, dehydration and packing in unit can be established.
Anardana The seed with adhering pulp (arils), when dried yields Anardana of commerce. The traditional method consists of manual extraction of arils followed by sundrying. It is unhygienic, labour intensive and slow. The product cannot be stored beyond the following monsoon season since spoilage occurs due to discolouration, moisture ingress and insect infestation.The improved processing technique consists of pre-cleaning, mechanised extraction of arils, solar drying and packaging. The mechanised aril extractor works on ¼ HP motor and can process 60 kg fruit/hr as compared to productivity of 5 kg/hr in manual operation.
Prepackaging of fruits and VegetablesThis simple technique involves cleaning, trimming, cutting of the fresh produce and packing the same in unit packages in polyethylene bags. Bean, carrot, brinjal, green chilli, root crops, leafy vegetables, and fruits like orange, lemon, banana, grape, and flowers like champaka, chrysanthemum can be prepackaged to obtain 1 to 2 times extension in shelf life in polyethylene bags under normal conditions without any refrigeration. The prepacked produce presents better consumer appeal, longer shelf life and has considerable handling advantages in transport and marketing. The major facility required at the farm level or in orchards is a packing shed.
Wax Emulsion for Fruit & Vegetables A large number of units in tiny sector can be set up for improving the shelf life of fresh fruits and vegetables in villages where they are grown for marketing in the urban areas.The wax emulsion is diluted with cold water and used for dipping fruits and vegetables. It enhances the shelf life, protects fruit from fungal attack, and reduces desiccation and weight loss during storage. The emulsion is harmless and imparts a gloss to fruits and vegetables. The process is quite simple and economical.
Evaporative Cool StoresEvaporative cooling system is a simple and cheap method for short term storage of fruits and vegetables. It does not depend on conventional energy sources.A 170 litre capacity EC chamber has been designed and tested. The special features are dripping system for water, compactness, easy loading and unloading through door and recycling of water. During summer months the system maintained a 20-25oC temperature and 90-95 % RH as compared to ambient conditions of 23 –38oC and 30-75.5 RH.The shelf life of commodities is extended upto 20% in EC storage. The freshness is well maintained due to the high humidity environment. EC stored tomato and banana develop better colour and uniform ripening. This system can also be used for various other purposes like horticulture, plant propagation, mushroom cultivation, fermentation, sericulture, etc.
Anti fungal PasteThe banana bunches after harvests are cut into banana hands or clusters. The cut ends get infected. To check this spoilage, an antifungal paste has been developed. It is harmless and produces no undesirable odour or flavour.The latex oozing out from the cut ends is washed in running water and wiped. The dry cut ends are treated with antifungal paste with the help of a paintbrush. The paste sticks well and dries in 20-40 minutes in the open air. It protects the cut ends of the bananas for a period of 15-17 days at room temperature and 21-32 days at 13oC while untreated cut ends show fungal rotting on 5th day room temperature and 10 day in cold storage. This antifungal paste application reduces infection during ripening also. For its manufacture the ingredients are mixed in a dough mixer to get a uniform paste. A food colour is also added to the paste to acertain the treatment of cut ends. The cost of the paste works out minimum economic unit is 25 kg paste/ batch of 90 min.
Improved Method of Mango RipeningMangoes are generally harvested when fully matured but green. The conventional method of ripening in hay has disadvantages like long ripening time, excessive handling and high degree of spoilage due to stem- end rot. The spoilage during ripening period is reported to be as high as 25 to 30%. In order to improve upon the ripening method, a simple technique has been worked out. It consists of dipping the fully matured but green mangoes in hot water at 48 to 54oC for 5 minutes, draining and keeping at room temperature till adhering surface water evaporates. Fruits are then packed in ventilated boxes/ crates. No hay or other packing material is needed. The ripening generally starts on 6th day of treatment and is complete on 12th day. The operation can be made continuous in fruit processing factories where large quantities of mangoes are handled. The technique has presently been standardized for Alphonso variety. The hot water treatment is found to reduce the spoilage to the extent of 50% and also helps in uniform ripening of fruits. The colour development in the flesh is better than conventionally ripened fruits.
Pickles and Chutneys Pickles and chutney have a great importance in the Indian menu and have now become essential items in any feast and lunch. Pickling of fruits and vegetables is an old art. A large variety of these items are method of preparation varies. The basic method is salt curing of fruits and vegetables, acidifying, addition of vinegar / oil and the spices.
Instant Pickles The traditional pickle making involves elaborate and time consuming process. A new concept has been worked out for making an instant pickle mix of lime and mango, which can easily be reconstituted, into a tasty pickle by the simple addition of oil and water. The dry mix has the features of convenience, better keeping quality, relatively low cost of production, reduced packaging and transportation cost. The ever expanding market for pickles, both in domestic and export sectors, can be exploited by adopting suitable market strategies.The process is simple and consists of the selection of fully matured commodities for picking, washing, and cutting matured commodities for pickling, washing and cutting, brine curing at optimal conditions, drying, addition of dry spice mixes and packing in unit packages.
Potato Flour Many ready –to -eat products are prepared from potato. Units based on potato products can easily be established in rural areas and the market can be exploited in urban and semi urban centres.Potato flour, granules and mash are used in the preparation of instant foods, soups etc. as binding materials and also for preparing kheer, tikki, chops, pakoda, cutlets, stuffed parotha, kofta and other products. Production of potato flour can be taken up easily using indigenous equipment’s. The process involves peeling of potato, cutting, pre-treatment with salt and permitted preservatives, soaking, granulating and drying. The dried product is ground and packed. The flour obtained by this process can be easily reconstituted with boiling water to get the mashed potato and used for making a variety of products
Potato Chips Potatoes are grown extensively in the northern region of India. During the glut season, growers do not get remunerative prices. Therefore it is advisable to utilize the surplus produce by preparing potato chips under hygienic conditions.The product based on developed sun drying technology is superior to the conventional one both in colour and quality. The process is simple and can be easily adopted at rural areas
Potato Wafer Potatoes are grown extensively in the northern eastern region of India. During the glut season, growers do not get remunerating prices. Therefore it is advisable to utilize the surplus produce by preparing potato chips under hygienic conditions.The product based on developed sun drying technology is superior to the conventional one both in colour and quality. The process is simple and can be easily adopted at rural level.
Mushrooms Mushrooms are fruit bodies of fungi that grow abundantly in the open fields, meadows, marsh edges, farm, yards etc. Some wild mushrooms are poisonous and narcotic but there are about 2000 edible spices too.Technologies have been developed for commercial cultivation of mushrooms under controlled conditions. These are safe and readily available for the market. Mushrooms are rich sources of easily digestible protein and minerals, besides being low in calories and almost fat-free. Profitable mushroom cultivation can be taken up in the rural areas where agro-waste is easily available. Its cultivation can provide gainful employment. Mushrooms are highly perishable. The unmarketable surplus of fresh produce can be preserved and processed into value added products by canning, dehydration, brine preservation, conversion into pickles, soup and ketchup in small scale processing units near the site of production.
Papain Papain is obtained from the latex of unripe green papaya fruit. It contains proteolytic (protein digesting ) enzyme. Papain finds wide applications in different industries. It is used in tenderisation of meat, manufacture of protein hydrolysate, confectionery items (to prepare chewing gum), brewing industry (for cheese making). It is also used in the pharmaceutical, textile, tanning, aroma and perfume industries and for effluent treatments. Organised papaya Planatations can be taken up in the rural areas.The process consists of tapping of latex from papaya fruits, mixing with potassium metabisulphite and storing under cold temperature. The latex is refined, vacuum dried and powdered. After testing and standardisation, it is packed and placed in rigid airtight containers.
Tomato Products Tomato is extensive grown in India and used for the preparation of puree, paste, ketchup, sauce and ready- to- eat products. There is a good domestic and export market. Since the fast food sector is expanding rapidly the demand, particularly for tomato ketchup and sauces, is also increasing
Value added products from bottlegourd: sweet pickle, hot pickle, tuity –fruityLow fat bhajias and samosas, aonola supari, safal fruit juice, Value added products from banana :juice, ripe banana powderm value addition of banana peel, amylase production, low fat cheese, all in one spice powder Mango powder rich in ß-carotene was developed from baneshan, suvarnarekha and totapuri and their blends
Factors influencing purchasing behaviour of processed foods:-among sensory attributes, consumers consider color, flavor, and texture in ghee. In cheese and milk powder, flavor was considered important.- an exposure to mass media appeared to be a very important factor influencing the purchase of health drinks- the vegetable products purchased by the survey population were pickle, ketchup and tomato sauce.-convenience foods/ instant foods require little or no preparation and save considerable time on cleaning the preparation area along with variety and high quality i.e., taste, nutrition and safety.-purchase of baked products is to save time.
Conclusion:India produces around 150 million tonnes of fruits and vegetables, but the annual wastage is estimated at Rs. 100 billion, according to a government task force. "India wastes more fruits and vegetables than are consumed in a country like Britain," said the report presented to Union Agriculture Minister Ajit Singh. To reduce wastage, fruits and vegetables have to be handled carefully and post harvest handling and packaging facilities should be improved, the report states.
Conclusion:The report says lack of cold chain at the farm level remains a major problem. It has advised cutting out all rough edges in handling fruits and vegetables to cushion the produce against damages. The poor handling of farm produce has led to only 1.8 per cent of fruits and vegetables being processed for value addition. Farmers are short changed, while consumers pay almost seven times more than what farmers receive. "All this is epitomised in the low level of processing, which is substantially lower than that of our Asian neighbours," it states, citing the case of Thailand that processes 83 per cent of produce and the Philippines (78 per cent).
Conclusion:To reduce wastage and improve delivery to customers, the task force has suggested setting up agriculture cooperatives on the lines of the Gujarat Co-op Milk Marketing Federation, which heralded India's milk revolution. What can be more relevant for India would be a better marketing network. "Both the system in South Korea and our own milk marketing system have demonstrated how co-operatives can play a useful role in streamlining the distribution system and reducing distribution costs but also providing an extension for farmers," the report states. India has estimated an investment need of Rs 1,400 billion over the next decade to increase value addition from the current two to 10 per cent and to generate employment for 30 million people.