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  1. The study of every living thing!

  2. 1.1 Similarities Among Living Things • Biology • Helps us understand things that impact us daily • Health & medical decisions • Environmental decisions • Food choices

  3. Biologists • Study all living things • How they _________________________ • How they _________________________ • How they _________________________

  4. Living Things • Were once thought to be filled with “_________________________”- forces that bring non-living things to life • During most of human history, many cultures believed in _________________________ - a view that living things exist because they have been filled with special forces called ethers that bring nonliving things to life

  5. ___________________________ • Arose during the Dark Ages • The belief that life begins when ethers enter nonliving things

  6. Francesco Redi • Performed experiments involving maggots to test spontaneous generation: • 1. Maggots appeared in opened jars containing meat • 2. Maggots did not appear in covered jars containing meat • 3. Maggots did not appear in jars covered with cloth- hence, supporting biogenesis. • The “ethers” could enter the jars in the setup, but the flies could not

  7. Francesco Redi • Performed experiments involving maggots to test spontaneous generation: • 1. Maggots appeared in opened jars containing meat • 2. Maggots did not appear in covered jars containing meat

  8. 3. Maggots did not appear in jars covered with cloth- this supported biogenesis. • The “ethers” could enter the jars in the setup, but the flies could not

  9. Biogenesis • Principle that ______________________________ • Each type of living organism produces more of its own kind, or species

  10. Francesco Redi • His work also supported another principle called _________________________ - the idea that all living and nonliving organisms obey the same laws of physics and chemistry. • Living things are more complex

  11. Living vs. Non-living • Living and non-living things are made of same materials , but living things are characterized by _________________________ • Many criteria are not unique to living systems • (Example: fire consumes energy and can reproduce, but it is not made of cells)

  12. 1. _________________________ • The degree of order in an organism. All organisms have patterns. • Specialized structures perform specific functions • All living things are made of _________________________ (the smallest unit that performs life functions)

  13. Organisms can be _________________________ (single celled) like bacteria

  14. Organism can be _________________________(many celled) like plants and humans • Each cell displays the characteristics of life

  15. Specialization (in multicellular organisms) • ___________________________________________________

  16. 2. _________________________ • Sum of all chemical reactions in an organism having to do with energy • Energy exists in different forms (sound, light and chemical)- all important to living things

  17. Where does energy come from? • All organisms take in energy from the _________________________ and use it for their life processes • Ex: Light energy enables plants to make food from carbon dioxide and water

  18. 3. _________________________ • An increase in size due to cell enlargement or division. • _________________________– formation of new cells from an existing cell

  19. 4. _________________________ • A change in shape or form to become a mature adult. • Involves cell division and specialization • Non-living things may experience growth and development (Ex: clouds growing and changing), but these changes are _________________________

  20. 5. _________________________ • When organisms produce new organisms like themselves • Not essential for organism survival • Essential for _________________ survival • Organisms pass on hereditary information in the form of ______________. • A __________ codes for a single trait. • Can result in exact duplicate (______________ reproduction) or a variation (____________ reproduction)

  21. Sexual reproduction – ______organisms pass hereditary information to offspring (DNA)

  22. Asexual reproduction – ______ organism produces an identical offspring

  23. 6. _________________________ • An organism can respond to a physical or chemical change in the internal or external environment • Growth, migration, color changes, movement are all responses to environmental stimuli

  24. 7. _________________________ • A way for an entire population to respond to _________________________ • Can be passed on from generation to generation • Important for _________________________ • Explains the diversity of life we see today

  25. Adaptation (cont.) • _________________________ • Maintaining a _________________________ environment • All living things need water, temperatures within a certain range and a source of energy • Body temperature • pH • Moisture

  26. The Organization of Life • All things can be organized from their smallest to their largest pieces

  27. Atom/molecule tissue Levels of Organization cell Organ system organ biosphere biome organism ecosystem population community

  28. _________________________– building blocks of matter

  29. _________________________– building blocks of life only living things are made of cells!

  30. _________________________– a group of cells working together form tissue i.e. heart tissue or muscle tissue

  31. _________________________– a group of tissue working together for a specific purpose i.e. heart or muscles

  32. _________________________– organs working together for a specific purpose Circulatory system or muscular system

  33. _________________________– Organ systems working together form an individual or organism

  34. _________________________– a group of individuals of the same species living in the same area.

  35. _________________________ - populations of animals (different species) living together in the same area.

  36. _________________________– all the biotic (living) and abiotic (non-living) things in an area

  37. _________________________– the similar set of biotic and abiotic species over a wide area

  38. _________________________– all of the places where living things exist on Earth

  39. 1.2: Adaptation • Conditions on Earth are _________________________. • The ability to respond and adapt to changes is one of the most important characteristics of living things. • _________________________changes: cooling and heating during the day • Animal responses occur quickly and easily with a change in _________________________ • _________________________changes: warming or cooling of Earth over thousands of years • Animal responses include _________________________.

  40. All living things are adapted to their surroundings • Species that are not well adapted do not survive they become _________________________

  41. _________________________ evidence points to the extinction of millions of species in Earth’s history

  42. How do the changes in Earth lead to changes in organisms? • Charles Darwin proposed a _________________________ to explain how organisms change over time • 1. He viewed life as a _________________________ for Earth’s limited resources • More living things are born than can survive • 2. Organisms _________________________ in their characteristics

  43. Charles Darwin (cont.)- Theory of Evolution • 3. Those organisms with certain characteristics are better able to survive and therefore reproduce • 4. The traits that enabled an organism to survive are _________________________ .

  44. Interdependence • All living things have complex interactions with their environments • All species require a precise combination of temperature, moisture, soil composition and other environmental conditions in order to survive.

  45. Some organisms are _________________________ – they rely heavily on one another for their survival • A small change to one type of organism, such as a change in population size can have a major impact on all the other organisms in an environment

  46. Predator – Prey Relationships Prey – is hunted/eaten by another species Predator – hunts/eats another species

  47. They lynx and hare populations are dependant on each other for survival.

  48. Symbiotic Relationships • Symbiosis is a relationship between organisms that depend on each other • 3 kinds: • Mutualism • Commensalism • Parasitism

  49. Symbiotic Relationships • 1. _________________________ – Both species will benefit from the relationship Bees and flowers

  50. Symbiotic Relationships • _________________________– A relationship where one species benefits and the other is unaffected. Barnacles on whales