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A Description of the National Weather Service Telecommunication Gateway

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  1. A Description of theNational Weather ServiceTelecommunication Gateway CMA Delegation Visit February 10, 2004 Fred Branski NWS Office of the CIO, Telecommunication Operations Center Team Leader for Data Management

  2. Who We Are Office of the Assistant Administrator For Weather Services Eastern Region Central Region Southern Region Western Region Alaska Region Pacific Region National Centers for Environmental Prediction 3 WFO’s 2 WFO’s 23 WFO’s 38 WFO’s 32 WFO’s 24 WFO’s Environmental Modeling Center Hydro- meteorological Prediction Center 1 RFC’s 3 RFC’s 2 RFC’s 4 RFC’s 3 RFC’s Storm Prediction Center Tropical Prediction Center (National Hurricane Center) Marine Prediction Center Office of theChief InformationOfficer Office of theChief Financial Officer Office of Climate, Water, & Weather Services Office of Operational Systems Office of Science & Technology Office of Hydrologic Development Central Operations Climate Prediction Center National Reconditioning Center NWS Training Center Meteorological Development Laboratory Hydrology Laboratory Aviation Weather Center Space EnvironmentCenter Telecommunications Operations Center Field Systems Operations Center Systems Engineering Center Radar Operations Center National Data Buoy Center HQs Field

  3. Central Guidance Local Offices How We Do It Observe Process Products & Services Respond & Feedback Distribute IBM SP at Bowie, MD Computer Center Feedback

  4. How We Do It Private Sector Partners Are Essential To Our Success • How do you receive weather warnings? • 65% Television • 17% Radio • 10% When the storm hits --source: USA Today web survey, May 2000

  5. How We Do It The average person only sees the tip of the iceberg TV Radio Internet Private Weather Companies NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE 121 Weather Forecast Offices Issue Local Forecasts & Warnings National Centers for Environmental Prediction Model Simulations Climate & Seasonal Outlooks Aviation & Marine Forecasts Storm & Tornado Prediction Hurricane Tracks River Forecasts Hydropower, Flood warnings Irrigation, River Navigation Observations Radar Network, Satellites, Weather Balloons, Ground-level observations at airports, Aircraft, Lightning Network, Data Buoys, Stream Gauge Network, 11,000 Volunteer daily-data collectors, Thousands of Volunteer storm spotters

  6. Regional Headquarters RegionalHeadquarters WSFO WFO WFO WSO WSO WFO WSO WSO WSO WSO Where We’ve Been & Where We AreModernization and Restructuring

  7. Where We’re GoingObservations and Data Assimilation(More Frequent, More Detailed) • Radar, surface observations, satellites, radiosondes, aircraft, cooperative observers, etc. Upgraded Radar Observations (Millions) Current Radar Upgraded Radar Increased Observations

  8. Where We’re GoingComputingNCEP Improvements • State of the Art Computing • 1000 Times 1993 Peak Computing Performance • Enables finer resolution models, greater detail, longer term forecasts • 1993 ran national model at 80 km resolution and global model run at 105 km resolution • 2001 national model run at 12 km and global model run at 75 km resolution • Climate Forecast System Operational this Fall • First Coupled Ocean/Atmospheric Modeling System for Climate Prediction

  9. Where We’re Going Computing Capability & Modeling 1993 1998 8 km 80km 32km 2001 2000 Sample coverage of an 8 km grid point 22km 12km

  10. Where We’re GoingImpact of Resolution on Model Precipitation Forecast Eta (22 km) Eta (10 km) 4.3” Better location Better intensity 2.2” Observed 6.5” 5.7”

  11. Types of Customers • Federal Government and Agencies • National Media • Local Media • Academic and Professional Community • Private Meteorological Companies (Value Added) • Local Governments and Agencies • Public • International Meteorological Community

  12. Types of Weather Services • Public • Aviation • Marine • Fire • Hydrology • Climate • Space

  13. NWS Role in the Dissemination of Information Observations International Organizations NWS Commercial Services and Media Federal and State Agencies Public

  14. NWR NWWS SBN/NOAAPORT Internet EMWIN FOS GMDSS GTS LDAD ISCS Interagency Connections NWS Telecom. Gateway* AWIPS* * Although not dissemination systems these are systems that are critical to the process Dissemination Systems

  15. Dissemination and Distribution Other Agencies Commercial NESDIS Satellite Specialized GOES Satellite Legend: Customers EMWIN EMWIN NOAAPORT • Commercial Weather Services • Research Institutions (> 1 min) NWWS • FAA, etc. FOS International ISCS Designated SBN/NOAAPORT • GOES Obs Local • NCEP Product Suite Customers Telecommunications Operations Center NCEP NWWS Media & Gateway Other (10 sec) LDAD Customers NCF WAN Radar Wx Data Gov’t Server Servers Internet-Based Field Dissemination Offices GTS WSR-88D NWR Public

  16. NOAA Weather Radio (NWR) • Description: Nationwide direct radio broadcast • Customer: General Public • Products: Warning, watches, forecasts (Voice) • Volume: Low volume radio. 630 transmitters. • (24x7 continuous) • Coverage: Reaches 80% to 90% of population

  17. Local Data Acquisition and Dissemination (LDAD) • Description: Dissemination is primarily FTP. • Customer: Government agencies, media, emergency managers • Products: Observations and Forecasts • Volume: Unique to WFO - examples: • - Sterling 1 Megabyte per day • - Cleveland 50 Megabytes per day to Corps of Engineers • Part of AWIPS system

  18. NWSTG Functional Overview • The NWSTG is • the central communication facility of the NWS • the primary acquisition and distribution center for NWS data and products • The NWSTG includes • the AWIPS Network Control Facility (NCF) • the ASOS Operations and Monitoring Center (AOMC) • WMO Regional Telecommunication Hub (RTH) Washington • ICAO OPMET Databank (KWBCYMYX) • the Telecommunication Gateway

  19. NWS Telecommunications Gateway (NWSTG) GTS Other Agencies NCEP NESDIS Family of Services • Public Product Service • Domestic Data Service3 • International Data Service • High Resolution Data Service • Server Access Service • Radar Products Service NWSTG NCF ISCS EMWIN NOAAPORT Watches, Warnings, Advisories, & Statements GOES

  20. Data Input to the NWSTG • Data Sources • NWS (ASOS, WFOs, NCEP National Centers) – observations, guidance, forecasts, watches & warnings, national products • FAA (ASOS) – aviation observations • DoD (FNMOC, AFWA) • DoT (Coast Guard) – marine reports • Other Government and Scientific Sources (NOS, OAR, USDA, Scripps Institute, SeaKeepers, etc.) – observations • ICAO (ISCS, AFTN) – aviation data • WMO (GTS MTN, Other GTS) – meteorological and hydrological data

  21. Data Input to the NWSTG • WMO Global Telecommunication System • Main Trunk Network

  22. Data Input to the NWSTG • Data Input Methods • IP Sockets • X.25 • Asynchronous • FTP – http://weather.gov/tg/ftpingest.html • Email – http://weather.gov/tg/emailingest.html • Web - http://weather.gov/tg/bullguid.html

  23. NWSTG Structure & Function • Components • 3 Mainframes – Active, standby, test & development • >70 Unix servers (HTTP, FTP, File server, communications, data processing) • >2 terabytes of online storage • >160 point-to-point communication circuits • 7 internal networks

  24. NWSTG Structure & Function

  25. NWSTG Structure & Function • Message Processing • Data input from various sources • Data is identified by WMO or AWIPS heading • Data stored in a receive queue along with information retrieved from a switching directory (>130,000 entries) • Some data selected for processing which may generate new products • Data written to transmit queue(s) based on switching directory information • Data sent to destination(s)

  26. NWSTG Structure & Function • Message Processing • >850,000 messages received daily • >8.5 billion bytes received daily

  27. NWSTG Data Dissemination - Push • Broadcast, multicast, and point-to-point data dissemination: • NOAAPORT • NWWS - NOAA Weather Wire Service • EMWIN – Emergency Manager’s Weather Information Network • ISCS – International Satellite Communications System • FOS – Family of Services

  28. NWSTG Data Dissemination - Push • NOAAPORT • AWIPS satellite broadcast network (SBN) • C-band satellite covering the entire US • Data includes NCEP model products, satellite imagery, observations, forecasts, watches & warnings • Volume: >23 GB/day >2,000,000 Products/day • Used to distribute data to • NWS field offices (WFOs and RFCs) • Commercial Users with NOAAPORT Receiver Systems • More Information at http://www.nws.noaa.gov/noaaport/html/noaaport.shtml

  29. NWSTG Data Dissemination - Push Americom 4 C-Band NOAAPORT (SBN) 3.5 T1 Circuits: NCEP/NWSTG Data GOES East GOES West Non-GOES Imagery/DCP NOAAPORT Receive System (NRS) Master Ground Station (MGS) 4 T1 Circuits 140+ AWIPS Field Sites Weather and Forecast Products Satellite Imagery AWIPS Network Control Facility (ANCF) Source: NGIT AWIPS Briefing, L. Klet

  30. NWSTG Data Dissemination - Push • NWWS – NOAA Weather Wire Service • Nationwide satellite distribution system for text products • C-band and Ku-band satellite covering the entire US • Data uplinked from 14 WFOs/RFCs, 6 National Centers • Data includes forecasts, watches & warnings • Volume: >8 GB/day • Used to distribute data to • Media • Emergency Managers • More Information at • http://www.nws.noaa.gov/nwws/ • http://dynis.dyncsc.com/contracts/nwws/index.html

  31. NWSTG Data Dissemination - Push • NWWS – System Data Flow Source: Detailed NWWS Data Collection Flowchart

  32. NWSTG Data Dissemination - Push • EMWIN – Emergency Managers Weather Information Network • Hemispheric direct broadcast using GOES East/West • Data includes a watches & warnings, forecasts, graphics, satellite imagery • Volume: >85MB/day • Used to distribute data to Emergency Managers • More Information at • http://iwin.nws.noaa.gov/emwin/index.htm

  33. NWSTG Data Dissemination - Push EMWIN – Satellite Footprint

  34. NWSTG Data Dissemination - Push • ISCS – International Satellite Communications System • Supports two data dissemination requirements for • ICAO World Area Forecast System (WAFS) • WMO Regional Meteorological Telecommunication Network for Region IV (North America) supporting two-way communication (RMTN/GTS) • C-band satellite coverage for • US area of responsibility - 30°W to 120°E • European area of responsibility - 100°E to 30°W (SADIS)

  35. NWSTG Data Dissemination - Push • ISCS – International Satellite Communications • Data includes aviation weather and other meteorological, hydrological, and climatological products • Six data streams • WAFS Text, GRIB, and Facsimile • RMTN Text, GRIB, and Facsimile • Volume: >630MB/day >180,000 Products/day • More Information at • http://weather.gov/tg/iscscvr.html • http://www.nws.noaa.gov/iscs/

  36. NWSTG Data Dissemination - Push International Satellite Communications System

  37. NWSTG Data Dissemination - Push International Satellite Communications System RMTN two-way sites shown in orange

  38. NWSTG Data Dissemination - Push • FOS – Family of Services (Push) • Point-to-point and multicast communication services • Serves commercial customers on a cost recovery basis • More information at • http://www.nws.noaa.gov/datamgmt/fos/fosindex.html • FOS Offerings Public Product Service Domestic Data Service International Data Service High Resolution Data Service Radar Product Service Server Access Service (not push)

  39. NWSTG Data Dissemination - Push • FOS – Family of Services (Push) • Public Product Service (PPS) • 9.6 kbps, asynchronous transmission • All Watches & Warnings, selected forecast, hydrologic, and agricultural products • Volume: >14,000 product/day, >60MB/day • Domestic Data Service (DDS) • 9.6 kbps, asynchronous transmission • Observations and forecasts for the CONUS • Volume: >35,000 product/day, >55MB/day

  40. NWSTG Data Dissemination - Push • FOS – Family of Services (Push) • International Data Service (IDS) • 9.6 kbps, asynchronous transmission • Worldwide observations and forecasts • Volume: >42,000 product/day, >35MB/day • High Resolution Data Service (HRS) • 56 kbps, X.25 transmission • Model-derived forecasts and analyses (mostly GRIB) • Volume: >62,000 product/day, >315MB/day • Detailed information about PPS, DDS, IDS, and HRS products are available at http://weather.gov/datamgmt/fos/fospage.html

  41. NWSTG Data Dissemination - Push • FOS – Family of Services (Push) • Radar Product Service (RDS) • 1.5 Mbps, IP Multicast transmission • WSR-88D Level III products • Volume: >800,000 product/day, 8 to 11GB/day • Detailed information about RPS is available at http://weather.gov/tg/rpccds.html • Detailed information about PPS, DDS, IDS, and HRS products are available at http://weather.gov/datamgmt/fos/fospage.html

  42. NWSTG Data Dissemination - Push Global Maritime Distressand Safety System (GMDSS) • Description: US Coast Guard Telecommunication Network • Customer: Maritime Community • Products: Navigational Warnings and Forecasts • Volume: 170 Megabytes per day

  43. Global Telecommunication System (GTS) NWSTG Data Dissemination - Push • Description: Two way point to point • Customer: International Meteorological Centers, e.g., UK, Japan, Canada, Central America, Caribbean, S. America, Africa • Products: Observations and Model Output (WMO Bulletins) • Volume: > 350 Megabytes per day • Circuit cost: Shared 50/50 with recipient.

  44. Interagency Connections NWSTG Data Dissemination - Push • Description: Primarily FTP • Customer: Major Customers are: • DOD: AFWA, FNMOC 400 Megabtyes per day • FAA 24 Megabtyes per day • USDA (Fire Weather) 1.5 Megabytes per day • USGS < 100 Kilobytes per day • USCG < 100 Kilobytes per day • Products: Observations & Forecasts • Volume: (see customer list above)

  45. NWSTG Data Dissemination - Push • Products Provided via Push • Content managed by the Data Management group in the Operations Support and Performance Branch • Changes made on a daily basis in response to operational requirements and customer requests • Products identified in the NWSTG (the Switching Directory) listed at http://weather.noaa.gov/tg/wmohdg.shtml • Products pushed via FOS, ISCS, NOAAPORT, and EMWIN listed at http://weather.noaa.gov/tg/dir_subset.shtml

  46. Internet NWSTG Data Dissemination - Pull • Description: Internet, both HTTP & FTP • Customer: NWS, NWS Partners (State/Local government, academic,commercial), General Public • Products: Observations, guidance, forecasts and warnings • Volume: - HTTP: 900 Gigabytes per day (NWS wide) • - FTP: 300 Gigabytes per day (NWSTG) • Considerations : Internet load may cause delays. Security

  47. NWSTG Data Dissemination - Pull • Servers provide access to stored data through various server protocols • FTP – Access to data files via anonymous FTP at ftp://tgftp.nws.noaa.gov (since 1993!) • FTPMail – Email based FTP for clients without the ability to establish interactive sessions • HTTP – Access to data files via http://weather.noaa.gov/pub (since 1994!) • FOS Server Access Services – FTP access through a dedicated connection

  48. NWSTG Data Dissemination - Pull • FTP – Access to data files via anonymous FTP at ftp://tgftp.nws.noaa.gov including • NCEP model output http://weather.gov/tg/modfiles.html • Product files (multiple messages or bulletins per file) http://weather.gov/tg/txtfiles.htmlhttp://weather.gov/tg/obsfiles.html • WSR-88D Level III products http://weather.gov/tg/radfiles.html • Satellite products http://weather.gov/tg/satfiles.html • Facsimile products http://weather.noaa.gov/fax/index.html • See http://weather.gov/tg/dataprod.html for more information

  49. NWSTG Data Dissemination - Pull • FTPMail – Email based FTP • Access to all FTPable products on ftp://tgftp.nws.noaa.gov • Email an FTP command sequence to ftpmail@weather.noaa.gov • Used primarily in the maritime community to retrieve products via satellite email services • See http://weather.gov/tg/ftpmail.html for usage details

  50. NWSTG Data Dissemination - Pull • HTTP – Access to data files • Access all the products at ftp://tgftp.nws.noaa.gov without FTP overhead at http://weather.noaa.gov/pub • Provides more browsable alternative to FTP • Application-based HTTP file transfers are often faster than FTP • Traditional interactive Web services include • http://weather.gov • http://weather.noaa.gov • http://iwin.nws.noaa.gov