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NOTICE : An Architecture for the No tification of T raffic I ncidents and C ong e stion. Dr. Michele C. Weigle Department of Computer Science Old Dominion University (Work done with Dr. Stephan Olariu and Gongjun Yan). Norfolk State University Department of Computer Science Colloquium

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notice an architecture for the no tification of t raffic i ncidents and c ong e stion

NOTICE: An Architecture for the Notification of Traffic Incidents and Congestion

Dr. Michele C. Weigle

Department of Computer Science

Old Dominion University

(Work done with Dr. Stephan Olariu and Gongjun Yan)

Norfolk State University

Department of Computer Science Colloquium

March 1, 2007

motivation
EXIT 12

Exit while you

still can!

From trekearth.com

Motivation

Give drivers advance warning of upcoming traffic congestion

outline
Outline
  • Overview of Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks (VANETs)
  • Security Issues in VANETs
  • Our Approach: NOTICE
  • Simulations
  • Conclusions
vehicular ad hoc networks vanets
c1

c2

c4

c3

c5

EXIT 12

C1 speed 0

C2 speed 0

C3 speed 0

Vehicular Ad-Hoc NetworksVANETs
  • Traffic information
    • cars report their position and speed to surrounding cars
    • car may suggest an alternate route
  • Weather warnings
  • Collision warning
  • Platooning
  • Intersection Assistance
vanets approaches
VANETsApproaches
  • V2V only (zero infrastructure, purely ad-hoc)
    • require no outside infrastructure or roadside devices
    • vehicles communicate with each other to determine traffic situation
  • V2V and V2I
    • requires some outside infrastructure, often in the form of roadside devices
    • infrastructure can provide aggregation/processing, encryption key distribution, access to larger network
security issues adversaries
Security IssuesAdversaries
  • Greedy Drivers
    • convince neighbors that congestion is ahead to clear roads
  • Snoops
    • driver profiling, tracking
  • Pranksters
    • hack things “just for fun”
  • Industrial Insiders
    • if mechanics are in charge of uploading software, they can load malicious programs
  • Malicious Attackers
    • terrorists, criminals with specific targets in mind

Bryan Parno and Adrian Perrig. Challenges in Securing Vehicular Networks, HotNets 2005.

security issues attacks
Security IssuesAttacks
  • Denial of Service (DoS)
    • overwhelm a vehicle’s resources or jam communication channels
  • Message Suppression
    • selectively drop messages, suppress congestion alerts
  • Fabrication
    • broadcast false information into network
  • Alteration
    • alter existing data, replaying earlier transmissions, disrupt voting mechanisms

Bryan Parno and Adrian Perrig. Challenges in Securing Vehicular Networks, HotNets 2005.

security issues approaches
Security IssuesApproaches
  • Digitally sign (encrypt with private key) each message sent by a vehicle
    • a vehicle is issued a certificate from an authority
    • certificate verifies vehicle’s public key used for decryption
    • disadvantage: allows tracking of vehicles
  • Pre-load many different anonymous key pairs and change keys at certain intervals
    • disadvantage: malicious user could use the keys to impersonate multiple vehicles

Key: Reliably associate a message with physical vehicle

our approach notice
Our ApproachNOTICE
  • Allow the roadway to associate messages with physical vehicles
  • Embed intelligent sensor belts in the highway
  • When a car passes over the belt, it reports its speed to the belt
  • The belt makes decisions about where congestion is occurring based on reports from cars and other belts

speed 55

notice car model and belt model
Event Data Recorder (EDR)

tamper-proof

records location, speed, etc.

Two transceivers

one for handshaking, Th

one for data transfer, Td

Pressure sensors

detect passing cars

Two transceivers

one for handshaking, BTh

short range (~1m)

one for data transfer, BTd

larger range (~3m)

NOTICECar Model and Belt Model

EDR

BTd

Td

Th

BTh

notice belt to belt communication
NOTICEBelt-to-Belt Communication
  • Individual belt in each lane
  • Connected belts (sub-belts) communicate instantaneously
  • Non-connected belts do not directly communicate
    • use cars as data mules
  • Gives encrypted message to a car to drop off at next belt

[avg spd 55]

[avg spd 55]

notice belt to car communication handshaking
EDR

Td

Th

NOTICEBelt-to-Car Communication - Handshaking
  • Belt sends “Hello” message to car
    • ID of belt
    • frequency channel for further communication, 
    • one-time shared encryption key, 
  • Car sends short acknowledgement

BTh

notice belt to car communication data transfer
EDR

Td

Th

NOTICEBelt-to-Car Communication - Data Transfer
  • Belt sends query
  • Car sends message from previous belt
  • Car sends encrypted (with ) EDR data
  • Belt sends encrypted (with ) traffic information
  • Belt sends encrypted message for next belt

3m

BTd

notice information propagation
EXIT 12NOTICEInformation Propagation

A2

A1

  • B1 is aware of traffic slowdown
    • creates encrypted message with latest traffic statistics
  • Information is provided to B2
  • B2 uploads message onto car destined for C2
  • When C2 receives message, it provides it to C1
  • C1 notifies passing cars

B2

B1

C2

C1

notice urgent mode
EXIT 12NOTICEUrgent Mode

A2

A1

  • B2 uploads message with urgent bit set onto car destined for C2
  • Car broadcasts message to other cars for faster delivery
  • Cars are passing encrypted messages, so no security risk

B2

B1

C2

C1

notice role based communication
EXIT 12NOTICERole-Based Communication
  • Emergency responders can provide information to NOTICE belts
  • Special encryption key used
  • Validate incident/congestion inference made by belts
notice evacuations
NOTICEEvacuations
  • Evacuees need information about resources
    • gasoline, hotels, shelters, etc.
  • Emergency management centers need method to disseminate information
  • Enhanced NOTICE can provide this
    • temporary infrastructure connected to belts for long-range communication
      • to emergency management centers
      • for backward propagation during contraflow
notice evacuations1
NOTICEEvacuations
  • Cars that have refueled report to nearest belt
  • Location and time of refuel propagated backwards by temporary infrastructure
  • Cars needing gas can exit at the appropriate location
notice simulations
NOTICESimulations
  • Developed a Java-based simulator
    • based on applet using realistic highway traffic model
    • http://www.traffic-simulation.de/
  • Measured message propagation time
    • normal mode
      • car receiving message carries it to the next belt
    • urgent mode
      • car receiving message broadcasts it to nearby cars
  • Traffic intensities from 70 vehicles/hr to 3600 vehicles/hr
conclusion
Conclusion
  • NOTICE: An Architecture for the Notification of Traffic Incidents and Congestion
  • Provides security and privacy
    • belts can independently corroborate information provided by vehicles
  • Works in sparse or dense traffic
  • Extensions for evacuation scenarios
future work
Future Work
  • Enhance our simulator
    • wireless channel conditions
  • Rules for how far to propagate congestion notifications
  • Rules for how to infer occurrence of traffic incident or congestion
  • Use with non-intrusive sensor
slide25
Michele C. Weigle

Department of Computer Science

Old Dominion University

Norfolk, VA

[email protected]

http://www.cs.odu.edu/~mweigle

VANET Research Group @ ODU

http://www.cs.odu.edu/~vanet

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