To kill a mockingbird
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To Kill a Mockingbird. Chapter 16. New Phrases.

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New phrases
New Phrases

  • Braxton Bragg : Of the eight men who reached the rank of full general in the Confederate army Braxton Bragg was the most controversial. The North Carolinian West Pointer (1837) had earned a prewar reputation for strict discipline as well as a literal adherence to regulations.

  • Mennonites: Believes literally in the word of God, some dress different. They are anabaptists, and believe you should do everything the way Jesus did it.

  • Prohibition ticket: Prohibition was a period in U.S. history (1920-1933) when the manufacture, transportation, and sale of alcoholic beverages was against the law. By voting the straight Prohibition ticket, Mr. Jones always votes for those political candidates who support Prohibition and were likely members of the Prohibition Party.

New phrases1
New Phrases

  • Roman carnival: A feast held by the Romans that had something of everything in it.

  • William Jennings Bryan: (March 19, 1860 – July 26, 1925) was the Democratic Partynominee for President of the United States in 1896, 1900 and 1908, a lawyer, and the 41st United States Secretary of State under President Woodrow Wilson. He was noted for a deep, commanding voice.

  • Jitney Jungle: a supermarket chain. Supermarkets were still relatively new to America in the 1930s. Most shoppers did business at smaller grocery stores.

New phrases2
New Phrases

  • Mixed child: A child that is half white and half coloured.

  • Ethiopia: During the time of the Old Testament, Ethiopia was a kingdom in Northeast Africa. Today, Ethiopia is a country in Eastern Africa.

Characters mentioned
Characters mentioned

  • Braxton Bragg Underwood: He was named after a confederate general. He hated negroes the most.

  • Dolphus Raymond: Drunk early in the morning.

  • Mennonites: wore no buttons and lived deep in the bush. They all had blue eyes and did their trading across the river. The men can’t shave their beards after they are married because their wives like them to tickle them with it.

  • Mr X Billups: His name is X. He had to show in court once that his name really was an X. His parents wrote it on his birth certificate.

  • Mr Tensaw Jones: voted the straight Prohibition ticket.

Characters mentioned1
Characters mentioned

  • Miss Emily Davis: Dipped snuff in private.

  • Mr Byron Waller: Could play the Violin

  • Mr Jake Slade: was cutting his third set of teeth

  • Miss Stephanie Crawford: Said she was going to the Jitney Jungle with a hat on. She said it looked as if William Jennings Bryan was speaking. She would look in on Atticus in the courthouse.

Characters mentioned2
Characters mentioned

  • The Idler’s club: Old, retired men who spend their time listening to court cases or discussing town life on benches. They have listened to so many court cases they are almost as expert as the lawyers and judges. They attend all court cases. They new Atticus was ordered/appointed to defend Tom Robinson, but what upset them was that Atticus planned to defend Tom Robinson.

Discussing the mob
Discussing the mob

  • Jem and Scout does not understand how mr Cunningham, a friend of the family, could have wanted to hurt Atticus.

  • Atticus explains that you lose your identity in a mob and you become something that you are not.

  • It took a nine year old girl to make them realize they were individuals.

  • When Scout talked to Mr Cunningham, Mr Cunningham realized he could not attack Atticus. He was an individual.

Dolphus raymond
Dolphus Raymond

  • Drunk early in the morning.

  • Seemed to drink whiskey from a paper bag with two straws.

  • He sits with colouredpeople because he seems to like them better than the whites.

  • He lives by himself on the county line.

  • He has colouredwoman and all sorts of mixed children.

  • He owns one side of the river bank and comes from an old family.

  • He was suppose to marry one of the Spender ladies but after the wedding rehearsal the bride went upstairs and shot her brains out. He never came over that.

Aunt alexandra
Aunt Alexandra

  • Doesn’t want Atticus to talk about negroes in front of Calpurnia

  • She is afraid the negroes will discuss it in their quarters.

Miss maudie atkinson
Miss maudieatkinson

  • Comes out on her porch the morning of the trial.

  • The footwashingbaptists pass her house in a wagon and call out “he that cometh in vanitydeparteth in darkness”.

  • Miss Maudiereplies with “A merry heartmaketh a cheerful countenance”.

  • Miss Maudie will not attend the court case although it is a public hearing.

  • To her it is morbid to watch a person on trial for his life.

  • Warned Stephanie Crawford that she might be subpoenaedbecause she knew so much about the case. (sarcasm).


  • Atticus says anything fit to say at his table is fit for Calpurnia’s ears.

  • Atticus seems slightly irritated by Aunt Alexandra’s requests but does not show it openly.

  • Negroes have a right to discuss whatever they want to.

  • Atticus spent the morning in court selecting the jury.


  • Wanted to hit Walter Cunningham when school started. Atticus forbade her.

  • Wants to know what mixed children are.

  • Mixed children live a sad life because the whites don’t want them and the colouredsdon’t want them.

  • Scout wants to know if they are mixed children. Jem says uncle Jack Finch says they might have come from Ethiopia. If you have one drop of negro blood in you in Alabama, you were black.

Jem scout and dill
Jem, scout and dill

  • Went to the courthouse after lunch.

Reverend sykes
Reverend sykes

  • Invited Jem, Scout and Dill to sit with the negroes on the balcony.

The jury
The jury

  • Sunburned, thin.

  • They all seemed to be farmers.

  • There were no townsfolk on the jury.

  • One or two looked like dressed up Cunninghams.

Judge taylor
Judge taylor

  • Amiable, white haired, slightly ruddy-faced.

  • He ran his court with alarming informality.

  • He sometimes propped his feet up or cleaned his fingernails.

  • He almost looked asleep as if dozing off.

  • He was learned in law and kept a firm grip on the proceedings.

  • He permitted smoking in his courtroom but did not smoke himself.

  • Sometimes he would put a cigar in his mouth and chew it, but he would not light it.