The Common Core and Argument Writing. Write:. What was your best writing experience? What was your worst writing experience?. Common Core: Anchor Standards. Text Types and Purposes*
Text Types and Purposes*
1. Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.
2. Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content.
3. Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, well-chosen details, and well-structured event sequences.
Production and Distribution of Writing
4. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.
5. Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach.
6. Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing and to interact and collaborate with others.
Research to Build and Present Knowledge
7. Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects based on focused questions, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.
8. Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, assess the credibility and accuracy of each source, and integrate the information while avoiding plagiarism.
9. Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
Range of Writing
10. Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of tasks, purposes, and audiences.
"With its roots in orality, rhetoric has a bias for viewing audiences as particular. Aristotle said, ‘The persuasive is persuasive to someone.’ In contrast to rhetoric, writing has a bias for an abstract audience or generalized conception of audience. . . . For this reason, a particular audience can be persuaded, whereas the universal audience must be convinced; particular audiences can be approached by way of values, whereas the universal audience (which transcends partisan values) must be approached with facts, truths, and presumptions.” ~Miller & Charney
Also. . .
~Miller & Charney
How do writers’ assumptions about audience affect production of a text?
“Considering the audience, therefore, is not simply a matter of selecting the information that readers need to understand the argument. Instead, writers must anticipate objections and questions and develop persuasive appeals, including building on common ground, refuting opposing claims, offering an acceptable reader-writer relationship, and presuming upon appropriate beliefs and values."
~Miller & Charney
Write a full definition of the term:
Courageous action involves the control of fear in the face of grave danger. For an act to be truly courageous, it must meet several criteria.
First, because courage is considered to be a virtue, any courageous act must be a noble or virtuous act, such as saving a life or preventing harm to another person. Robbing a bank, no matter how dangerous and no matter how steadfast the actor, is not a noble or selfless act. Because it is not a virtuous act, it cannot be considered courageous.
~ Hillocks, 170
“The best compositions establish a sense of momentum and direction by making explicit connections among their different parts, so that what is said in one sentence (or paragraph) not only sets up what is to come but is clearly informed by what has already been said. When you write a sentence, you create an expectation in the reader’s mind that the next sentence will in some way echo and be an extension of the first, even if—especially if—the second one takes your argument in a new direction.”~Graff & Birkenstein
EXAMPLES: Also, besides, furthermore, in addition, similarly, in other words, for example, for instance, although, but, despite the fact that, however, as a result, since, so, therefore, admittedly, as a result, consequently, yet
Spot is a good dog. He has fleas.
Spot is a good dog, even though he has fleas.
Courage is resistance to fear.
Courage is mastery of fear.
Courage is not absence of fear.
“Children wanted their kiddy-cars to go faster. First, the animal design was done away with. Then off went a couple of the wheels. The two remaining wheels were greatly enlarged and then aligned down the center of the vehicle. Finally, handlebars and footrests were added. These primitive two-wheelers went much faster than the four-wheeled kiddy-cars.” ~ Toys! Wulffson
“Riders didn’t even have to leave the saddle to be badly hurt. Their hands and shins were smashed and their knee ligaments ripped when horses twisted beneath them or banged into the rails and walls. Their ankles were crushed when their feet became caught in the starter’s webbing.”
~ Seabiscuit, Hillenbrand
“Jebel Musa in the morning is like a tiger at dawn, a cat curled up in the shadows, its coat the color of pumpkin pie, its demeanor a misleading message: tame. As we arrived at the small plateau where climbers prep for the hike to come, the mountain seemed almost inert, waiting. At 7,455 feet, it’s not a particularly tall mountain: half as high as the tallest mountain in the Colorado Rockies; roughly as tall as the highest peak in the Appalachians. But it is impressive, completely dominating the landscape around it like a mother elephant dwarfing her babies. A mixture of red and gray granite fused together in an imposing, almost threatening mass, Mount Moses rises straight from the ground and softens slightly at the top like a drip castle. Though not as angular as Mount Ararat, nor as tall as nearby Mount Katarina, it still seems like a particularly imposing backdrop, waiting for some particularly majestic drama to take place in front of it.” ~ Walking the Bible, Feiler
Is this an effective summary of Source B?
At the moment of harvest, food begins to lose vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals important for fighting disease and maintaining health. Because the decrease is negligible, however, even if food is days or weeks from harvest, it’s still possible to derive nutrition from it and be healthy by making smart food choices.
"Findings from this study suggest that teachers needn't teach to the test in a narrow, evaluation-focused manner; rather, they can develop tools that move students toward test-readiness while keeping writing process principles in focus.“