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Skin - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Skin. the largest organ of the body 1 mm to 2 mm thick almost 2 square meters 6% of a person’s body weight. Functions of the Skin. protection disease-causing organisms dangerous chemicals blood loss fluid loss. Functions of the Skin. temperature regulation. perspiration.

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slide2

Skin

  • the largest organ of the body
  • 1 mm to 2 mm thick
  • almost 2 square meters
  • 6% of a person’s body weight
slide3

Functions of the Skin

  • protection
    • disease-causing organisms
    • dangerous chemicals
    • blood loss
    • fluid loss
slide4

Functions of the Skin

  • temperature regulation
slide5

perspiration

blood vessels

sweat glands

slide6

Functions of the Skin

  • temperature regulation
  • sensation
  • manufacture of small amounts of vitamin D
  • absorption of some chemicals
slide7

Layers of the Skin

  • epidermis
    • outer layer of skin
  • dermis
    • inner layer of skin
  • epidermis
  • epidermis

upon

skin

slide9

callus

an area of the skin with a thickened epidermis

slide10

Blister

  • The layers of the skin separate and fluids collect in the space between the separated layers.
  • caused by friction and heat
slide11

papillae

ridges of the dermis that push up into the epidermis

slide12

dactylography

the study of fingerprints

slide13

oil gland

dermis

nerve receptor

blood vessels

sweat gland

hair follicle

slide14

subcutaneous layer

subcutaneous

subcutaneous

under

skin

slide15

melanin

a dark brown or black pigment that causes much of the color of human skin

slide16

melanocytes

special cells in the skin that produce melanin

slide17

carotene

a yellowish pigment

slide19

By tanning, people are actually increasing their risk of skin cancer and causing their skin to age prematurely.

slide20

sunburn

a first-degree burn caused by UV radiation

slide21

Types of Burns

  • first-degree burns
    • the epidermis only
  • second-degree burns
    • the epidermis and some of the dermis
slide22

Types of Burns

  • third-degree burns
    • the epidermis, dermis, and subcutaneous layer
slide23

Skeleton Types

  • exoskeleton
  • endoskeleton
slide24

Bones

  • skull
  • mandible
  • clavicle (collarbone)
  • scapula (shoulder blade)
  • humerus
slide25

Bones

  • ulna (little finger side)
  • radius (thumb sideof lower arm)
  • carpals (wrist bones)
  • metacarpals (bonesof the hand)
slide26

Bones

  • phalanges (bones of the fingers)
  • sternum (breastbone)
  • ribs (24—7 pairs of true ribs, 3 pairs of false ribs, 2 pairs of floating ribs)
slide27

Bones

  • vertebrae (backbones)
  • pelvis
  • femur (largest bone in the body)
  • patella (kneecap)
  • tibia (shinbone)
slide28

Bones

  • fibula (narrower boneof the lower leg)
  • tarsals (ankle bones)
  • metatarsals (bones of the feet)
  • phalanges (bones of the toes)
slide29

Skeleton Functions

  • framework for support and movement
  • protection
  • storage of minerals
  • production of blood cells
slide30

spongy bone

marrow cavity

hard bone

bone marrow

slide31

periosteum

periosteum

periosteum

around

bone

slide32

periosteum

the tough, white tissue covering the surface of bones

slide33

ligament

a band of connective tissue that attaches a boneto another bone

tendon

a band of connective tissue that attaches a muscleto a bone

slide34

sprain

a stretch injury to the ligaments of a joint

slide36

osteon

a microscopic unit of bone consisting of a blood vessel and layers of hard nonliving material around it

slide37

bone cells

blood vessel

layers of nonliving bone material

slide38

cartilage

soft, flexible tissue that makes up a portion of the skeleton

slide39

Bone vs. Cartilage

  • Cartilage has fewer calcium and phosphorus deposits.
  • Cartilage lacks blood vessels.
slide40

Cartilage Locations

  • the outer ear
  • the tip of the nose
  • between the ribs and the sternum
  • between the vertebrae
slide41

Location

Function

outer ear and tip of nose

provides flexibility

between ribs and sternum

acts as shock absorber

between vertebrae

provides cushioning

slide42

Joint

  • a place where two or more bones come together
  • held together by ligaments
slide43

Hinge Joint

  • bends in only one direction
slide44

Gliding Joint

  • allows limited movement sideways and up and down
slide45

Ball-and-Socket Joint

  • allows free movement in all directions
slide46

Pivot Joint

  • allows for rotation
slide47

Fused Joint

  • does not allow any movement because the bones have fused together
slide48

Diseases andDisorders of Joints

  • sprains
  • arthritis
  • rheumatism

arthritis

arthritis

joint

inflammation

slide50

How Muscles Move

  • pull, never push
  • work in pairs
slide52

How Muscles Move

  • pull, never push
  • work in pairs
  • cross over at least one joint
slide54

How Muscles Move

  • pull, never push
  • work in pairs
  • cross over at least one joint
  • attach to two differentbones
slide56

Functions of Muscles

  • movement
  • posture
  • heat production
slide57

Voluntary Muscles

  • muscles that a person can control at will

Involuntary Muscles

  • muscles that are controlled automatically by the brain
slide58

Striated Muscles

= have stripes

  • muscle tissue that displaysa pattern of light and dark bands

Smooth Muscles

  • muscles that lack striations
slide59

Types of Muscles

  • skeletal muscles
    • voluntary
    • striated
  • visceral muscles
    • muscles of the internal organs
    • involuntary
    • smooth
slide60

Types of Muscles

  • cardiac muscle
    • striated
    • involuntary
slide61

cellular respiration

the process by which cells obtain usable energy from energy sources

slide62

aerobic

= requires oxygen

anaerobic

= without oxygen

slide63

Muscle cells go through lactic acid fermentation when there’s not enough oxygen available for aerobic respiration.

slide64

Muscle Disorders

  • strain
    • a stretching or tearing of muscles or tendons
  • atrophy
    • a great reduction in muscle tissue
slide65

Muscle Disorders

  • cramps
    • the painful, involuntary contractions of fatigued muscles
  • muscle spasm
slide66

nonstriated

involuntary

internal (visceral)

(visceral)

skeletal

skeletal

cardiac

striated

striated

nonstriated

voluntary

involuntary

involuntary