PMBOK Chapter 10 Project Communication Management
Why Communication is important? • Project manager spends 90% of his time in communication • Communication management includes the processes required to ensure timely and appropriate generation, collection, distribution, storage, retrieval and ultimate disposition of project information.
Communication is What ? Encoding Decoding Sender --------- Message ------- Receiver Feedback
Mapping the Processes Process Group PM Knowledge Area
Identify Stakeholders • The process of identifying all people or organizations impacted by the project, and documenting relevant information regarding their interests, involvement and impact on project success.
Identify Stakeholders Inputs • Project Charter • Procurement Documents • Enterprise Environmental Factors • Organizational Process Assets
Identify Stakeholders Tools & Techniques • Stakeholder Analysis • Quantitative and Qualitative information • Interests, Expectations and Influence of the stakeholders • Steps to follow: • Step 1 Identify all potential stakeholders and usually done by interviewing already known stakeholders • Step 2 Identify potential impact or support generated by stakeholder and classifying importance of each. Models can be • Power/Interest Grid • Power/Influence Grid • Influence/Impact Grid • Power/Urgency and Legitimacy (Salience model) • Step 3 Asses how key stakeholders are likely to react or respond in various situations
Identify Stakeholders Tools & Techniques • Expert Judgment To ensure comprehensive identification and listing of stakeholders the following groups should be sought • Senior management • Other units within the organization • Identified key stakeholders • Project managers who worked on similar projects • Subject matter experts (SMEs) • Industry groups and consultants • Professional and technical associations
Identify Stakeholders: Outputs • Stakeholder Register • Identification information • Assessment information • Stakeholder classification • Stakeholder Management Strategy • Stakeholder analysis matrix
Plan Communication • The process of determining the project stakeholder information needs and defining a communication approach
Plan Communication: Inputs • Stakeholder Register • Stakeholder Management Strategy • Enterprise Environmental Factors • Organizational Process Assets
Plan Communication: Tools & Techniques • Communication Requirement Analysis • Information typically used includes: • Organization charts • Project organization and stakeholder responsibility relationships, • Disciplines, departments, and specialties involved in the project • Logistics of how many persons will be involved with the project and at which locations • Internal information needs (e.g., communicating across organizations) • External information needs (e.g., communication with the media) • Stakeholder information from the stakeholder register and the stakeholder management strategy
Plan Communication: Tools & Techniques • Communication Technology Factors that can affect the project include: • Urgency of the need for information • Availability of technology • Expected project staffing • Duration of the project • Project Environment
Plan Communication: Tools & Techniques • Communication Models • Encode • Message and feedback-message • Medium • Noise • Decode
Plan Communication: Tools & Techniques • Communication Methods • Interactive communication • Push communication • Pull communication
Plan Communication: Outputs • Communication Management Plan Usually provides • Stakeholder communication requirements • Information to be communicated • Reason of distribution • Time frame and frequency • Person communicating • Person authorizing release of information • Person or groups receiving information • Technology used • Resources allocated • Escalation process • Method for updating the plan • Glossary of common terminology • Flow charts of the information flow in the project • Communication constrains • Project Document Updates
Q: One Purpose of the Communication Management plan is to offer: A. Methods about how to gather & store Information. B. Measure the level of experience of each team member. C. Organize the project and the relationships of stakeholder responsibilities. D. Provide methods of releasing team members after they are no longer needed. • Answer: A
Distribute Information process • Making relevant information available to project stakeholders as planned.
Distribute Information: Inputs • Project Management Plan • Performance Reports • Organizational Process Assets
Distribute Information: Tools and Techniques • Communication Methods Meetings, video and audio conferences, computer chats and other remote communications methods • Information Distribution Tools • Hard copy document distribution • Electronic communication • Electronic tools for project management
Distribute Information: Outputs • Organizational process assets updates • Stakeholder notification • Project reports • Project presentations • Project records • Feedback from stakeholders • Lessons learned documentation.
Communication Blockers:Perception screens are caused due to: • Noise • Distance • Hostility • Language • Culture • Evaluative tendency • Improper Decoding • Personality and interest • Position and status • Lack of responsive feedback • Withholding information • Mixed messages • Stereotyping
Manage Stakeholder Expectations • The process of communicating and working with stakeholders to meet their needs and addressing issues as they occur.
Manage Stakeholder Expectations: Inputs • Stakeholder Register • Stakeholder Management Strategy • Project Management Plan • Issue Log • Change Log • Organizational Process Assets
Manage Stakeholder Expectations: Tools& Techniques • Communication Methods • Interpersonal Skills • Building trust • Resolving conflict • Active listening • Overcoming resistance to change • Management Skills • Presentation Skills • Negotiating • Writing skills • Public Speaking
Manage Stakeholder Expectations: Outputs • Organizational Process Assets Updates • Causes of issues • Reasoning behind corrective actions chosen • Lessons learned • Change Requests • Project Management Plan Updates • Project Document Updates • Stakeholder management strategy • Stakeholder register • Issue log
Q: The most common problem that occurs during negotiation is: A. Each side might misinterpret what the other side has said B. Each side may give up on the other side C. One side may try to confuse the other side D. One side may be too busy thinking about what to say next to hear what is being said • Answer A
Report Performance Process • The process of collecting and distributing performance information, including status reports, progress measurements, and forecasts
Report Performance: Inputs • Project Management Plan • Work Performance Information • Deliverables status • Schedule progress • Costs incurred • Work Performance Measurements • Planned Vs. Actual schedule performance • Planned Vs. Actual Cost Performance • Planned Vs. Actual Technical Performance • Budget Forecasts • Organizational Process Assets
Report Performance: Tools & Techniques • Variance Analysis • Forecasting Methods • Time Series methods • Casual/econometric methods • Judgmental methods • Other methods (simulation, probabilistic forecasting and ensemble forecasting) • Communication Methods • Reporting systems
Report Performance: Outputs • Performance Reports • Analysis of past performance • Current status of risks and issues • Work completed during the reporting period • Work to be completed during the next reporting period • Summary of changes approved in the period • Results of variance analysis • Forecasted project completion (including time and cost)
Report Performance: Outputs • Tabular Performance Report Sample
Report Performance: Outputs • Organizational Process Assets Updates • Change Requests • Recommended corrective actions • Recommended preventive actions
Q: Of the Various tools & Techniques on Performance Reporting, which one integrates scope, cost & schedule information as key elements? • Real options Analysis • Variance Analysis • Earned Value Analysis • Schedule/ Cost Analysis • Answer C