50 Years of Federal Radiation Protection Guidance – What’s Left To Do?. NCHPS Spring Meeting March 4, 2010 Presented by Mike Boyd US EPA Radiation Protection Division. Credit where credit is due –. I owe my career in Health Physics to my mentor, Dr. Jim Watson. 2.
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NCHPS Spring Meeting
March 4, 2010
Presented by Mike Boyd
US EPA Radiation Protection Division
I owe my career in Health Physics to my mentor,
Dr. Jim Watson.
The Federal guidance function is to"...advise the President on radiation matters, directly or indirectly affecting the public, including guidance for all Federal agencies in the formulation of radiation standards...”
- Authority transferred from Federal Radiation Council to EPA Administrator in 1970
- President signs final guidance
EPA has used Federal Guidance to
- Set New Limits for Uranium Workers
- Set Revised General Standards for Workers
- Issue Guidance on the Use of Diagnostic X-rays
Radiation Protection Guidance for Federal Agencies: EISENHOWER 1960 (FRC)
Underground Mining of U Ore: NIXON 1970 (FRC)
Guidance for Occupational Exposure (revised 1960 guidance): REAGAN 1987 (EPA)
Supplemental FG: KENNEDY 1961 (FRC)
Guidance on Diagnostic X-rays: CARTER 1978 (EPA)
Tech. Report 12 External Exposure DCFs 1993 (EPA)
Tech. Report 8 Guidance for Control of Hazards in U Mines 1967 (FRC)
Tech. Report 9 Background for Diagnostic X-ray Guidance 1976 (EPA)
Tech. Report 10 Radioactive Concentration Guides (out of date) 1984 (FRC)
Tech. Report 11 ALIs, DACs, & DCFs (current, ICRP 26) 1988 (EPA)
Tech. Report 13 Cancer Risk Coefficients 1999 (EPA)
Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR)
United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR)
ICRP 2 and 10 (1960’s)
ICRP 26 and 30 (multiple parts) (1976 -1980’s)
ICRP 60 + 66, 68, 72 et al (1990 – 2005)
ICRP 103 (2007) + documents being developed (through 2012 or later)
FGR 11 dose conversion factors (DCFs) used to calculate effective dose to reference adult from ingestion and inhalation of 800+ radionuclides (Sv/Bq)
Provides ALIs and DACs
FGR 11 dosimetry is out of date (based on ICRP 26 and 30 from 1976); but still needed to comply with some US regulations
More recent ICRP 60+ DCFs can be found on FGR 13 CD Supplement
Provide effective dose for Reference Worker and Reference Individual (both gender averaged)?
Provide age-,gender-, and organ-specific equivalent doses?
Provide updated ALIs and DACs?
FGR 12 DCFs used to calculate effective dose to reference adult from exposure to radionuclide concentrations in soil, air and water
Work is currently underway to update FGR 12 with addition of age- and gender-specific DCFs
New DCFs will reflect latest decay data in ICRP Publication 107 (replaces ICRP 38)
Radiation Risk Assessment Model/Data Table Publications
FGR 13 gives risk per becquerel for food ingestion, water ingestion, and inhalation
Gives risk/year of exposure per becquerel/ gram of radionuclides in soil
Revision based on BEIR VII is in the early stages (expected ~ 2012 or later)
Current FGR 13 values in units of picocuries are available in EPA’s Health Effects Assessment Summary Tables (HEAST)
CD Supplement includes all the data files used to calculate risk coefficients in FGR 13
A data viewer allows the user to look up age-, gender-, and organ-specific risks per radionuclide
ICRP 60+ dose coefficients are also available on the CD Supplement
Guidance only applies to use of medical/dental x-rays in federal facilities (HHS, VA, DoD)
1976 guidance based on film radiography (film overexposure provided ALARA incentive)
Digital radiography, CT, and interventional fluoroscopy can give sizable doses creating a concern for increased latent cancer risk
Goal is to choose the appropriate imaging procedure and give the dose necessary for proper diagnosis – and no more!
Sources of Radiation Exposure Model/Data Table Publications(NCRP Report #160, 2009)
As already mentioned, EPA is or will be updating Federal Guidance Reports 9, 11, 12, and 13
FGR 9 and 12 will be completed in late 2010 or early 2011
FGR 13 is now scheduled for completion in 2013
FGR 11 may be ready in late 2012 or 2013, since organ dose information needed for new risk coefficients in FGR 13
Federal Guidance for the General Public
Revised Occupational Presidential Guidance?
Embryo and fetus dose and risk coefficients?
Dermal absorption dose coefficients?