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CREATE: The Opportunities and Challenges. Douglass Post for The CREATE Team Chief Scientist & CREATE Program Manager, DoD HPCMP HPC Users ’ Forum, Norfolk, VA April 14, 2008.

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create the opportunities and challenges
CREATE: The Opportunities and Challenges

Douglass Post for The CREATE Team

Chief Scientist & CREATE Program Manager, DoD HPCMP

HPC Users’ Forum, Norfolk, VA April 14, 2008

CREATE will develop and deploy three computational engineering tool sets for acquisition program engineers to harness the exponential growth in supercomputer power to rapidly develop and analyze engineering design options. These tool sets include Aircraft tools (Aerodynamics & Structures), Ship tools (Hydrodynamics and Structures) and Antenna Integration tools (Electromagnetics).

Distribution Statement A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

the future is bright for hpc but challenges loom as we go from petaflops s to exa flops s
The future is bright for HPC but challenges loom as we go from petaflops/s to exa-flops/s
  • Extrapolation to 2020
    • (1-10 GFlops/core)
  • 2000: 7.2 TFLOPs/s
    • ~5000 cores
  • 2010: 2x103 TFLOPs/s
    • 105-6 cores
  • 2020: 106 TFLOPs/s
    • 108-10 cores
  • How do we program for 108-10 cores? Especially if the cores are different?
next generation computers offer society unparalleled power to address important problems
Next Generation Computers Offer Society Unparalleled Power to Address Important Problems

Next Generation Computers Will Provide Exciting Opportunities To Develop And Deploy Very Powerful Application Codes, Much More Powerful Than Present Tools:

Utilize Accurate Solution Methods

Include All The Effects We Know To Be Important

Model A Complete System

Complete Parameter Surveys In Hours Rather Than Days To Weeks To Months

Greatest Opportunities Include Large-scale Codes That Integrate Many Multi-scale Effects To Model A Complete System

Science And Engineering Design

how do we get the codes that can exploit the next generation of computers
How do we get the codes that can exploit the next generation of computers?
  • Developing such codes is the major bottleneck!
    • Codes that can exploit the next generation of computers incorporate multi-scale, multi-disciplinary effects and scale to many, many thousands of processors
    • Developing such codes Requires large (10 to 30 professionals), multi-disciplinary, multi-institutional teams 5 to 10 years
    • Who will pay ~ 100 $M for each code?
    • Who will wait ~ 10 years for the development of these codes?
  • What’s the path forward?
how do we realize the potential
How do we realize the potential?
  • We need to pay attention to the business model
  • Simple codes are cheaper than computers (2-3 developers for a few years ~ 1 – 4 $M)
    • Agencies fund Scientific research, not code development
    • Large, Complex codes are more expensive than computers (~ 100 $M), especially large scale engineering codes!
    • Cheaper, simpler codes will run on tomorrow’s cheap workstations and small clusters that will be as powerful as today’s supercomputers
  • To justify supercomputers in 2020, we must explicitly fund code development because it’s no longer cheap
what is needed for large scale computational science and engineering
What Is Needed For Large-scale Computational Science And Engineering?

We Need A Complete Problem Solving Capability:

Computers

Codes

V&V

Users

Sponsors

Sponsors

getting big funding is about establishing value added
Getting Big Funding is About Establishing Value Added!
  • Value for sponsor:
    • Accurate and timely information that can be used to make decisions
  • Value for the customers (users)
    • Tools (software and hardware) that are easy to use and can yield reliable answers in a relevant timeframe.
  • Value for V&V
    • Tools whose accuracy has been established
  • Code developers
    • Computing environment that facilitates code development
  • Computers
    • Computers that balance performance and utilization with ease of use for users, V&Vers and code developers
how do we market cse
How Do We “Market” CSE?
  • Must Establish That We Can Solve A Problem That People With Funding Need Solved!
  • Approach:
    • Problem
    • Benefit Of Solving Problem
    • Our Credibility To Solve The Problem
    • Vision For Solving The Problem
  • DoD Problem ― Major Acquisition Programs
    • Over Budget, Behind Schedule, Not Agile And Flexible, Performance Shortfalls
  • Return On Investment > 1 For Other Systems
computational research and engineering acquisition tools and environments create
Computational Research and Engineering Acquisition Tools and Environments (CREATE)

CREATE Goal Is To Enable Major Improvements In The DoD Acquisition Process

Detect And Fix Design Flaws Early In The Design Process Before Major Schedule And Budget Commitments Are Made

Begin System Integration Earlier In Acquisition Process

Increase Acquisition Program Flexibility And Agility To Respond To Rapidly Changing Requirements

Improve The Ability Of DoD Institutions To Develop And Exploit Large-scale Computational Science And Engineering Tools

STRENGTHEN ENGINEERING & TEST EFFORTS BY INJECTING

COMPUTATIONALRESEARCH & ENGINEERINGFOR

ACQUISITIONTOOLS & ENVIRONMENTS (CREATE)

A

B

C

IOC

FOC

CONCEPT

REFINEMENT

TECHNOLOGY

DEVELOPMENT

SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT

&DEMONSTRATION

PRODUCTION &

DEVELOPMENT

OPERATIONS &

SUPPORT

Concept

Decision

Design

Readiness

Review

FRP

Decision

Review

slide11

F-18E/F

Separated Flow

Loss of Control

  • $360M 12-year Program to develop & deploy 3 computational engineering tool sets for acquisition engineers
  • Aircraft design tools: Aerodynamics, air frame, propulsion, control, early rapid design
  • Ship design tools: Early stage design, ship survivability, and hydrodynamics performance
  • RF Antenna design tools: RF Antenna performance and integration with platforms
  • Computational Infrastructure

Explosion Survivability

C4ISR Antennas in Network-Centric Battlespace

immature engineering designs are major contributors to dod acquisition program cost schedule growth
Immature Engineering Designs Are Major Contributors to DoD Acquisition Program Cost & Schedule Growth

C

R

E

A

T

E

CAN

HELP

Impact on DOD is $10s of Billions

how did we market create
How Did We “Market” CREATE?
  • Problem
    • Budget Overruns, Schedule slippage, performance shortfalls, rigid and slow process
  • Benefit Of Solving Problem
    • Reduced cost; faster delivery; good performance; rapid, flexible and agile process
  • Our Credibility To Solve The Problem
    • Track record, lessons learned, solid credentials
  • Vision For Solving The Problem
    • Develop and deploy computational engineering tools to optimize designs, detect design defects and fix them, respond rapidly to requirements changes, reduce testing by getting the design right the first time.
create is a multi institutional program team
CREATE Is A Multi-institutional Program & Team
  • National Search  Key Positions
  • Acquisition Programs  Gaps
  • Gaps  Products
  • Products  Institutions and Staff

OSD, Andre van Tilborg, DUSD(S&T)

HPCMP Executing Agent, Cray Henry, Director

Official HPCMP

Advisory Panel

CREATE Program, Doug Post (PM), Sara Arevalo, Analyst

Air Vehicles

Robert Meakin, (PM), Chris Atwood (Dep)

RF Antennas

Kueichien Hill (PM), David Van Veldhuizen (Dep)

Project

Boards

Computational

Infrastructure,David Fisher* (PM)

Project

Boards

Ships

Myles Hurwitz (PM), Vacant (Dep)

Project

Boards

Project

Boards

Requirements Team

(Govt Only)

Code Development Tools, Environments, and Services

KESTREL

Eglin AFB, Scott Morton

Hydrodynamics, NSWC-Carderock, Joseph Gorski

Test Team

(Govt, Industry)

Education and Training

Shadow-Ops, NAVAIR, Pax River

Joe Laiosa (act)

Product Team 1

(Govt, Industry, Academia)

Product Team 2

(Govt, Industry, Academia)

T. Blacker, Geometry and Meshing, SNL

Survivability NSWC-Carderock, Tom Moyer

Rotorcraft, Ames, R. Strawn (collab.)

Application Advisory Panel (Govt, Industry, Academia)

Collaboration Tools and Infrastructure

Automated Structural

Layout

Technical Advisory Panel

(Govt, Industry, Academia)

Rapid Design, NAVSEA 05D, Steve Wynn

Software Engineering

Propulsion Integration

*Govt includes DoD, DoE, NASA

*CREATE Chief Engineer

establishing a multi institutional multi disciplinary collaboration is a daunting challenge
Coordinating collocated code development by one institution has proven very challenging

Coordinating non-collocated code development by multiple institutions will be even more challenging

Establish the right culture, behavior and control

Form a team whose members have trust and respect for each other and a strong commitment to the success of the project

Provide support for collaboration tools (hardware, software, and user help).

Effective desktop video communication

Effective daily communication

Establishing a Multi-Institutional, Multi-Disciplinary Collaboration Is a Daunting Challenge
  • Propose an aggressive program to develop and deploy collaboration tools and methods, budgeting up to $750k/year
  • Firewall issues have made this more difficult than we planned
create is designed for engineers
CREATE is Designed for Engineers

Results &

Analysis

Develop

Code

Code

Use

CSE

Developers

CSE

Developers

Journals

CSE

Developers

Operations

Design

Engineers

Test &

Evaluation

Test Fails

Develop

Code

Code

Use

Test

Model

Build

System

Build Model

CREATE

Developers

Model

Builders

Manufacturers

  • Computational Science is challenging:
  • Develop a complex code, apply it to study a scientific research problem, and publish the findings.
  • CREATE is attempting something much more challenging:
    • And the development will done by non-collocated, multi-institutional teams.
identified customers and their requirements and needs
Identified Customers and Their Requirements and Needs
  • Working with the acquisition communities to identify the capability gaps
  • Identifying the gaps that computational engineering can fill
  • Developing concepts for computational engineering tools that could fill those gaps
  • Selecting tools that can be developed by the CREATE program given the available resources and schedule
  • Documenting these requirements in Initial Capability Documents (ICD)
  • Begun the process of validating the requirements in the ICDs with the customers
slide19

CREATE-AV

0110 01010 110010001011100

A

B

C

IOC

FOC

CONCEPT

REFINEMENT

TECHNOLOGY

DEVELOPMENT

SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT

&DEMONSTRATION

PRODUCTION &

DEVELOPMENT

OPERATIONS &

SUPPORT

Concept

Decision

Design

Readiness

Review

FRP

Decision

Review

Example: CREATE Air Vehicles

We’ve turned the crank once on this process – and are implementing Step-8 now

slide20

CREATE-AV

0110 01010 110010001011100

Acquisition Processes That HPC Can Improve

Targeted Acquisition Processes

slide21

CREATE-AV

0110 01010 110010001011100

Separation

Turbulence

Aero-structure interaction

Jets

Wakes

Shocks

Vortices

Many Processes Need The Same Physics

  • Numerous acquisition processes . . .

A commonality of governing physics makes it possible for a relatively small set of CSE software tools to impact a large number of important acquisition processes.

slide22

CREATE-AV

0110 01010 110010001011100

Identified Acquisition Program Gaps To Select CREATE Products

  • Proposed Computational Engineering Software Products and Activity
  • ASL: AUTOMATED STRUCTURAL LAYOUT. Next generation software to enable CSE insertion into early phase acquisition, advanced conceptual design, and virtual prototyping
  • KESTREL: Next generation high-fidelity multi-physics simulation for FIXED-WING air vehicles
  • HELIOS: Next generation high-fidelity multi-physics simulation for ROTARY-WING air vehicles
  • PAI: Next generation software to enable high-fidelity analysis of AIRFRAME/PROPULSION INTEGRATION
  • SHADOW-OPS: Primary mechanism to validate AV CSE software products and process changes to targeted acquisition workflows; transition CREATE-AV technology into acquisition workforce; and to build bridges between AV CSE software development teams and targeted acquisition organizations.

Technical & Development

Transition & V&V

create ships has three subprojects

FY03 OPNAV Sponsored Cruiser Concept

CREATE Ships has three subprojects
  • Ship Hydrodynamics
    • Accelerate and improve all stages of ship hydrodynamic design by providing the next generation of computational modeling and simulation tools.
  • Ship Shock, Damage, and Survivability
    • Supplement full ship shock and live fire effect tests with computational analysis
  • Rapid Design Capability and Design Synthesis
    • Develop and deploy computational tools for rapid design and assessment of candidate ship designs to avoid cost versus capability mismatches
rf antenna project projects focus on meeting near and long term needs
RF Antenna Project projects focus on meeting near and long term needs
  • Requirements Team--Identify evolving needs
  • Test Team--Test and transition computational tools
  • Customer Interface Team--Lower thresholds for users
  • Near Term Capability Team--Improve legacy tools
  • Long Term Capability Team--Develop tools to utilize next-generation computers
  • Technical Advisory Panel--Ensures technical soundness of tools
  • Application Advisory Panel--Ensure that the tools meet acquisition program needs and support Board of Directors
strategy for create computational infrastructure
Strategy for CREATE-Computational Infrastructure

VIPR

  • Near-term
  • Provide state-of-practice development environment
  • Collaborative intranet for CREATE developers & managers
  • Best available software development tools
  • Shared repository for CREATE artifacts
    • Code repository & backup mechanism
    • Configuration, version, and release control [SVN]
    • Issue tracking [JIRA]
    • Interactive database [Deki Wiki]
  • Collaboration tools (multiple candidates available for test)
  • Common run-time architecture
  • Shared agreement on software development process
  • Training & support for CREATE projects
  • Begin development of shared acquisition tool components
  • Long-term
  • Transition environment to one specialized to development of production quality physics-based CSE tools
  • Address broader set of shared acquisition tool components
  • Strive for SE methods & tools better suited to CSE development

25

11/17/2014

problem generation takes up to 90 of the calendar time

Requirements

& Goals

Mesh

Generation

Production

Runs

Analysis of

Results

Decisions &

Final Design

Concept &

Design

Including

Geometry

Manual or automated Design Iterations

Problem Generation takes up to 90% of the calendar time
  • Must reduce problem generation time (geometry and mesh) from weeks—months to minutes
  • Brought in T. Blacker from SNL to develop a program and begin to execute it
slide27

Air-Vehicle Problem Set-Up: Complex geometry and flow physics modeling is a key barrier to application of Computation-Based Engineering in all phases of acquisition.

Unsteady time dependent body motion with complex flow interaction problems

P-3C

Aircraft, weapon and interior slice of volume grid for simulation of unsteady 6DOF weapon bay release

Close up of weapon in bay surface and flowfield discretization

two major challenges for engineering codes
Two Major Challenges for Engineering Codes
  • Engage The Acquisition Community From The Beginning And Get The Requirements Right
    • Create Shadow Operations Group To Use Tools To Support Acquisition Programs And Determine User Needs
    • Adds Value, And Tracks User Requirements As They Evolve
  • Develop The Right Codes For The Short And Long Term
    • Provide Value And Impact In The Short Term (2008-2010)
    • Next Generation Codes For The Long Term (2010-2019), designed for Supercomputers in 2020 (109 GFLOPS, 109 processors)
    • Solution
      • Develop Light-weight Integrated Design Environment (IDE) Around Legacy Codes—Interface and linkage packages
      • Transition IDE Capability To Acquisition Programs
      • Apply Lessons Learned To Design And Develop Next Generation Codes for Supercomputers in 2020
prototype codes will be gradually replaced with next generation codes
Prototype Codes Will Be Gradually Replaced With Next Generation Codes

Short Term Deliverables

Long Term Deliverables

Next Generation Codes

For Computers in 2020

Existing Legacy Codes

Relative Code Development Effort

Delivered Code Capability

Knowledge

transfer

Users

2008

2010

2013

2016

2019

Time

ShadowOps Engages Customers, Tracks Customer Needs And Requirements

slide30

Problem

Generation

Interface

link

Interface

link

Output

Analysis

Incremental Early Delivery With Long Term Goals And Deliverables — Kestrel Example

Fly the Airplane on the computer

1 to 3 years

Time step / iteration loop

Air Frame

Structural

Mechanics

Aircraft

Control

Aerodynamics

(Air Flow)

  • 2008-2009
    • Build light-weight software infrastructure to link legacy codes

airframe response

airframe loads

Legacy CSM codes

NASTRAN

LS-Dyna

ANSYS

DyTran

ABAQUS

IDEAS …

Legacy CFD codes

Cobalt

Overflow

AVUS

Fluent

ANSYS CFX…

101-3 GFLOPS

102-3 Cores

  • 2010-2019
    • Replace legacy codes with next generation codes (109 GFLOPs)

5 – 10 years

Next Generation CFD Codes

Next Generation CSM Codes

109 GFLOPS And 109 Cores

Build And Test New Codes To Replace Legacy Codes

Separated Flow

Loss of control

slide31

Kestrel

Single Executable

Single Executable

Additional

Additional

Of Modules

Of Modules

Executables

Executables

Fluid

Fluid

-

-

Structure

Structure

Rigid

Rigid

-

-

Grid

Grid

Structural

Structural

CREATE-AV

CFD

CFD

0110 01010 110010001011100

Interface

Interface

Move

Move

Solver

Solver

Solver

Solver

Integrated Force &

Integrated Force &

CFD

CFD

Mesh

Mesh

Mesh

Mesh

Moment Calculator

Moment Calculator

Solver

Solver

Adaptation

Adaptation

Deformer

Deformer

Infrastructure

Infrastructure

Aircraft

Aircraft

On

On

-

-

the

the

-

-

Fly

Fly

Engine Thrust

Engine Thrust

6DOF

6DOF

Autopilot

Autopilot

Autopilot

Autopilot

Trim

Trim

Visualizer

Visualizer

Model

Model

Store

Store

-

-

Release

Release

Control Surface

Control Surface

Prescribed

Prescribed

Constraints

Constraints

Deflection

Deflection

Motion

Motion

Fixed Wing Virtual Aircraft

batch interactive what is the right trade off

Batch Interactive What is the right trade-off?

Batch provides greatest computer utilization

User waits for the computer

Interactive maximizes human interaction

Computer waits for the user

Code development is mostly done interactively

Science runs are mostly done with batch systems, and have been for last 60 years

What’s the best model for design calculations?

slide33

Code Development is interactive

Computational

Science

Workflow

Test

Component

Optimize

Component

Validation

Expts.

Debug

Component

Validation

Tests

Set global

Requirements

Write

Component

Verification

Tests

Select

Programming

Model

Analyze

Results

Identify

algorithms

Develop

Approach

Develop

Approach

Customer

input

Detailed

Design

Detailed

Goals

Recruit

Team

Decide;

Hypothesize

Formulate

questions

Define

Goals

V&V

Formulate

questions

Identify

Customers

Develop

Code

Production

Runs

Complete

Run

Schedule

Runs

Optimize

runs

Execute

Runs

Initial

Analysis

Analyze

Run

Store

Results

Define

tests

Document

Decisions

Make

Decisions

Identify

Next Run

Setup

Problems

Identify

Uncertainties

Identify

Next Step

Define

General

Approach

Regression

Tests

Identify

Models

Computing

environment

Upgrade existing code or develop new code

Not the WaterFall Model!

  • Requirements
  • Design
  • Code
  • Test
  • Run

―D. E. Post, R. P. Kendall, Large-Scale Computational Scientific and Engineering Project Development and Production Workflows, CTWatch (2006), vol.2-4B,pp68-76.

33

11/17/2014

computer requirements for acquisition computing depend on designer workflows

Requirements

& Goals

Mesh

Generation

Production

Runs

Analysis of

Results

Decisions &

Final Design

Concept &

Design

Including

Geometry

Manual or automated Design Iterations

Computer requirements for acquisition computing depend on designer workflows
  • Designer Workflow is iterative
  • Mesh generation is a major bottleneck
  • Geometry generation is a key (sometimes neglected) requirement
standard scientific computing workflow is linear

Operating System in Control

Generate

input deck

Waits in

job queue

Job runs

Analysis of

Results

Decisions &

Final Design

Submit

Job

CDC 7600

Standard scientific computing workflow is linear
  • Batch operating system without a human in the loop once job submission is complete
  • Just like the good old days.
different services may require a mixture of computers linked in a local network

Design

Automated

Automated

Design

Different Services may require a mixture of computers linked in a local network

License

Server

Workstation

Mesh Generation

Cluster

  • Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) Approach
  • Loosely coupled codes passing data through XML files, and other approaches

Geometry

(CAD)

Solver 1

(CFD)

Workstation

Data Store

Designs, Results..

Big Cluster

Requirements

Driver

Solver 2

(FE CSM)

Cluster

Decision

Results Analysis

(Viz)

Big Cluster

Workstation

Cluster

Boeing, industry…―R. Haimes, MIT

the utility of high performance computing to the dod is increasing
The Utility Of High Performance Computing To The DoD Is Increasing
  • DoD Values HPC Solely For Its Benefits To The DoD
  • We Have To Continually Establish The Value of HPC To The DoD
  • As Computing Capability Evolves Our Business Model And Our Service Model Must Evolve To Meet Changing Environments and Requirements
  • There Is Tremendous Potential For Making A Very Positive Impact, But The Challenges Are Immense
  • It’s Going To Be A Lot Of Fun