What causes most places on the Earth to have seasons? - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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What causes most places on the Earth to have seasons?

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What causes most places on the Earth to have seasons?

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  1. What causes most places on the Earth to have seasons? The Earth is closer to the Sun in summer and farther away in winter The spin axis is tilted 23.5° to the plane of the Earth’s orbit, causing solar radiation to vary in angle as the Earth revolves around the Sun The spin axis changes in tilt causing winter when the tilt is great and summer when the tilt is small Days are longer during summer than winter, so the extra sunshine causes it to be warmer in summer and less sunshine causes it to be colder in winter There is more ice in winter, so it is colder, and less in summer, when it is warmer

  2. What causes most places on the Earth to have seasons? The Earth is closer to the Sun in summer and farther away in winter The spin axis is tilted 23.5° to the plane of the Earth’s orbit, causing solar radiation to vary in angle as the Earth revolves around the Sun The spin axis changes in tilt causing winter when the tilt is great and summer when the tilt is small Days are longer during summer than winter, so the extra sunshine causes it to be warmer in summer and less sunshine causes it to be colder in winter There is more ice in winter, so it is colder, and less in summer, when it is warmer

  3. Why is ocean climate (and the entire Earth for that matter) divided into latitude parallel zones that become progressively colder from equator to pole? • Winds are stronger at higher latitudes, so cooling is greater at higher latitudes • Precipitation and cloud cover increase with latitude, causing higher latitudes to be cooler • Greater amounts of ice occur at higher latitudes, making it cooler at higher latitudes • Cold ocean deep water returns to the surface at high latitudes, causing cooling • The average solar radiation (sunlight) striking the surface declines from equator to poles

  4. Why is ocean climate (and the entire Earth for that matter) divided into latitude parallel zones that become progressively colder from equator to pole? • Winds are stronger at higher latitudes, so cooling is greater at higher latitudes • Precipitation and cloud cover increase with latitude, causing higher latitudes to be cooler • Greater amounts of ice occur at higher latitudes, making it cooler at higher latitudes • Cold ocean deep water returns to the surface at high latitudes, causing cooling • The average solar radiation (sunlight) striking the surface declines from equator to poles

  5. If you travel by airplane from New York to Paris (approximately east to west across the Atlantic Ocean), which way do you have to steer the airplane to arrive in at the Paris airport? • Slightly north of a direct line between airports • Slightly south of a direct line between airports • Along the straight line between airports, because there is no effect on east-west motion • Straight north, allowing the Earth’s rotation to carry the airplane eastward • Straight south, allowing the Earth’s rotation to carry the airplane eastward

  6. If you travel by airplane from New York to Paris (approximately east to west across the Atlantic Ocean), which way do you have to steer the airplane to arrive in at the Paris airport? • Slightly north of a direct line between airports • Slightly south of a direct line between airports • Along the straight line between airports, because there is no effect on east-west motion • Straight north, allowing the Earth’s rotation to carry the airplane eastward • Straight south, allowing the Earth’s rotation to carry the airplane eastward

  7. When a water column becomes strongly stratified, what important process does it interfere with? • a. light penetration • b. vertical mixing • c. photosynthesis • d. respiration

  8. When a water column becomes strongly stratified, what important process does it interfere with? • a. light penetration • b. vertical mixing • c. photosynthesis • d. respiration

  9. At about what latitude does the ocean change from a net heat gain to a net heat loss? • a. 20 degrees • b. 30 degrees • c. 40 degrees • d. 50 degrees

  10. At about what latitude does the ocean change from a net heat gain to a net heat loss? • a. 20 degrees • b. 30 degrees • c. 40 degrees • d. 50 degrees

  11. Which arrow represents the direction of the trade winds between the equator and about 30 degrees N? • a. • b. • c. • d.

  12. Which arrow represents the direction of the trade winds between the equator and about 30 degrees N? • a. • b. • c. • d.

  13. In general surface temperature does what as you go from low to high latitudes. • a. increases • b. remains relatively constant • c. decreases • d. increases then decreases

  14. In general surface temperature does what as you go from low to high latitudes. • a. increases • b. remains relatively constant • c. decreases • d. increases then decreases

  15. 1. Unequal solar heating at the earth’s surface is due to which of the following? a. the rotation of the earth b. the curvature of the earth's surface c. the difference in specific heat of land as compared to the ocean d. the greenhouse effect

  16. 1. Unequal solar heating at the earth’s surface is due to which of the following? a. the rotation of the earth b. the curvature of the earth's surface c. the difference in specific heat of land as compared to the ocean d. the greenhouse effect

  17. 2. What is one of the main processes responsible for determining the salinity of surface waters in most of the open ocean? a. river runoff b. melting and freezing of sea ice c. evaporation d. solar heating

  18. 2. What is one of the main processes responsible for determining the salinity of surface waters in most of the open ocean? a. river runoff b. melting and freezing of sea ice c. evaporation d. solar heating

  19. 3. The temperature profile of a polar region can best be described as ______ . a. having a strong thermocline b. isothermal c. having a weak thermocline

  20. 3. The temperature profile of a polar region can best be described as ______ . a. having a strong thermocline b. isothermal c. having a weak thermocline

  21. 4. OTEC is a concept that takes advantage of which Of the following vertical gradients in the oceans? a. pressure b. salinity c. density d. temperature

  22. 4. OTEC is a concept that takes advantage of which Of the following vertical gradients in the oceans? a. pressure b. salinity c. density d. temperature

  23. 5. A force which causes an apparent deflection to the right in the Northern Hemisphere is ___. a. gravity b. Coriolis c. wind d. ocean currents

  24. 5. A force which causes an apparent deflection to the right in the Northern Hemisphere is ___. a. gravity b. Coriolis c. wind d. ocean currents

  25. 6. The tendency for isotherms to run in an east-west direction allows them to be characterized as_____ . a. tropical b. longitudinal c. normal d. zonal

  26. 6. The tendency for isotherms to run in an east-west direction allows them to be characterized as_____ . a. tropical b. longitudinal c. normal d. zonal

  27. 2. An eastern boundary current in the North Atlantic is which of the following?a. Canary Current b. Bengula Current c. Peru Current d. California Current

  28. 2. An eastern boundary current in the North Atlantic is which of the following?a. Canary Currentb. Bengula Current c. Peru Current d. California Current

  29. 3. Gulf Stream Rings serve to mix which of the following from one side to the other.a. salt b. heat c. plants d. animals e. all of these

  30. 3. Gulf Stream Rings serve to mix which of the following from one side to the other.a. salt b. heat c. plants d. animals e. all of these

  31. 4. The slope of the sea surface in the gyres is maintained by a balance between what two factors? a. solar heating and winds b. coriolis and gravity c. solar heating and gravity d. temperature and salinity

  32. 4. The slope of the sea surface in the gyres is maintained by a balance between what two factors? a. solar heating and winds b. coriolis and gravity c. solar heating and gravity d. temperature and salinity

  33. All of the following factors are responsible for the formation of oceanic gyres except . a. solar heating b. winds c. westward intensification d. gravity

  34. All of the following factors are responsible for the formation of oceanic gyres except . a. solar heating b. winds c. westward intensification d. gravity

  35. 6. The increased surface height in oceanic gyres is . a. right in the middle of the gyre b. offset to the eastern side c. offset to the southern side d. offset to the western side

  36. 6. The increased surface height in oceanic gyres is . a. right in the middle of the gyre b. offset to the eastern side c. offset to the southern side d. offset to the western side

  37. Gyres are semi-enclosed current systems or complexes. In the northern hemisphere they rotate in which direction? a. counterclockwise b. clockwise c. to the east d. to the west

  38. Gyres are semi-enclosed current systems or complexes. In the northern hemisphere they rotate in which direction? a. counterclockwise b. clockwise c. to the east d. to the west

  39. Bottom water in the oceans originates in ______. a. high latitudes b. temperate waters c. low latitudes d. high salinity areas

  40. Bottom water in the oceans originates in ______. a. high latitudes b. temperate waters c. low latitudes d. high salinity areas

  41. The deep circulation of the ocean is driven mainly by _______ . a. surface currents b. density differences c. the rotation of the earth d. none of these

  42. The deep circulation of the ocean is driven mainly by _______ . a. surface currents b. density differences c. the rotation of the earth d. none of these

  43. In normal (non-El Nino) years, the slope of the thermocline from west to east can best be characterized by which of the following? a. slopes upward b. no noticeable slope c. slopes downward d. has a wave-like form

  44. In normal (non-El Nino) years, the slope of the thermocline from west to east can best be characterized by which of the following? a. slopes upward b. no noticeable slope c. slopes downward d. has a wave-like form

  45. An internal wave might form under which of the following conditions? a. at the boundary between the atmosphere and the ocean b. at the boundary between the ocean and the seafloor c. at a density boundary within the ocean d. only as a result of tidal activity

  46. An internal wave might form under which of the following conditions? a. at the boundary between the atmosphere and the ocean b. at the boundary between the ocean and the seafloor c. at a density boundary within the ocean d. only as a result of tidal activity

  47. 2. What process can produce unusually large surface waves at sea other than large storms such as hurricanes? a. destructive wave interference b. wave refraction c. tsunamis d. constructive interference

  48. 2. What process can produce unusually large surface waves at sea other than large storms such as hurricanes? a. destructive wave interference b. wave refraction c. tsunamis d. constructive interference

  49. 3. What is the distance between successive wave crests called? a. fetch b. period c. height d. wavelength

  50. 3. What is the distance between successive wave crests called? a. fetch b. period c. height d. wavelength