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Unit 5: Anatomy and Physiology of the Human Body

Unit 5: Anatomy and Physiology of the Human Body

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Unit 5: Anatomy and Physiology of the Human Body

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  1. Unit 5: Anatomy and Physiology of the Human Body Jeannie Exley, BS, EMT-P Bartlett High School Bartlett, TN.

  2. Overview • Importance of EMT understanding anatomy and physiology • Definition of anatomy and physiology • Vital systems • Core systems • Accessory systems

  3. Introduction In order to understand patient’s illness, EMT must have basic knowledge of: Basic anatomy Anatomical terminology Concepts of physiology and human body

  4. Anatomy and Physiology • Anatomy: study of structure • Physiology: study of function • Topographic anatomy • Study of relationship of one body part to another • Lines of reference • Directional terms

  5. Figure 5.2 The standard planes of reference and directional terms

  6. Anatomic Positions Range of motion Extension and flexion Abduction and adductions Supination and pronation Eversion and inversion

  7. The Vital Systems The nervous system Controls and coordinates bodily functions The central nervous system Brain Spinal Cord Figure 5.11 The brain and its subdivisions

  8. The Vital Systems (cont’d.) • The peripheral nervous system • Allows communication between body and brain, or vice versa, via spinal cord • The autonomic nervous system • Collection of nerves originating in brainstem • Transmits vital impulses to organs

  9. The Vital Systems (cont’d.) • The circulatory system • The heart • Cardiac function • Direction of blood flow • Electrophysiology Figure 5.15 Pulmonary and systemic circulation

  10. The Vital Systems (cont’d.) • The circulatory system (cont’d.) • The blood vessels • Arteries • Carry blood from heart to body • Veins • Return blood to heart • Capillaries • Receive blood from arteries and pass it to veins Figure 5.17 Arteries, veins, and capillaries

  11. The Vital Systems (cont’d.) The circulatory system (cont’d.) The blood Transports Glucose Sugar Oxygen White blood cells Hemostasis: process of blood clotting

  12. The Vital Systems (cont’d.) The respiratory system The upper airway Oropharynx Nasopharynx Larynx Epiglottis Figure 5.19 The structures of the upper airway

  13. The Vital Systems (cont’d.) • The respiratory system (cont’d.) • The lower airway • Carina • Bronchi, bronchioles and terminal bronchioles • Goblet cells and cilia • Alveoli

  14. The Vital Systems (cont’d.) • The respiratory system (cont’d.) • Respiration • Exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen • Pleurae • Membranes surrounding lungs • Diaphragm • Large muscle within lower chest • Ventilation • Intake and outtake of air

  15. The Core Systems The digestive system Abdominal cavity Contains organs of digestive system Digestive organs Appendix: no known function Liver: creates digestive bile Pancreas: creates digestive enzymes

  16. Figure 5.26 Abdominal cavity and its contents Figure 5.27 The four quadrants of the abdomen

  17. The Core Systems (cont’d.) • Endocrine system • Glands produce hormones to affect target organs • Retroperitoneal cavity • Abdominal aorta • Inferior vena cava • Kidneys • Filter blood and eliminate waste

  18. The Core Systems (cont’d.) The lymphatic system Also known as immune system Infectious microorganisms are carried to lymph nodes Spleen Stores and filters blood Destroys old red blood cells Produces lymphocytes

  19. Accessory Systems The integumentary system Skin Epidermis Dermis Subcutaneous tissue Figure 5.31 Structures of the skin

  20. Accessory Systems (cont’d.) The muscular system Sternocleidomastoid muscle Trapezius and pectoralis major muscles Deltoid, biceps and triceps muscles Diaphragm Quadriceps and gastrocnemius muscle

  21. Accessory Systems (cont’d.) The skeletal system: axial skeleton Skull Spinal column Thoracic cage Figure 5.37 Bones of the skull and face

  22. Accessory Systems (cont’d.) The skeletal system: appendicular Shoulder girdle Arms Upper arm Forearm Hand

  23. Accessory Systems (cont’d.) The skeletal system: appendicular (cont’d.) Legs Upper leg Patella Lower leg Foot Joints Figure 5.50 The lower leg

  24. Accessory Systems (cont’d.) The reproductive system Male reproductive organs Testes Penis Female reproductive organs Ovaries Uterus Vagina

  25. Conclusion Important for EMT to: Be familiar with basic anatomy To know the normal functioning of body With this knowledge, EMT can: Recognize when physical problem exists Know how to remedy that problem