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Wireless# Guide to Wireless Communications. Chapter 10 Wireless Wide Area Networks. Objectives. Describe wireless wide area networks (WWANs) and how they are used Describe the applications that can be used on a digital cellular telephone Explain how cellular telephony functions

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wireless guide to wireless communications

Wireless# Guide to Wireless Communications

Chapter 10

Wireless Wide Area Networks

objectives
Objectives
  • Describe wireless wide area networks (WWANs) and how they are used
  • Describe the applications that can be used on a digital cellular telephone
  • Explain how cellular telephony functions
  • List features of the various generations of cellular telephony
  • Discuss how satellite transmissions work

Wireless# Guide to Wireless Communications

cellular telephone applications
Cellular Telephone Applications
  • Digital cellular telephones can be used to:
    • Browse the Internet
    • Send and receive short messages and e-mails
    • Participate in videoconferencing
    • Receive various sorts of information
    • Run a variety of business applications
    • Connect to corporate networks
    • Watch television or on-demand movies
    • Take and transmit pictures and short movies
    • Locate family members and employees using GPS

Wireless# Guide to Wireless Communications

cellular telephone applications1
Cellular Telephone Applications
  • Short Message Services (SMS)
  • One of the most widely used applications
    • Allows for the delivery of short, text-based messages between wireless devices
      • Messages are limited to about 160 characters
    • Applications
      • Person-to-person
      • Agent-to-person
      • Information broadcast services
      • Software configuration
      • Advertising
      • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Short_message_service

Wireless# Guide to Wireless Communications

how cellular telephony works
How Cellular Telephony Works
  • Keys to cellular telephone networks
    • Cells
      • City cells measure approximately 10 square miles
      • At the center of each cell is a cell transmitter connected to a base station
      • Each base station is connected to a mobile telecommunications switching office (MTSO)
        • Link between the cellular network and the wired telephone world
        • Controls all transmitters and base stations

Wireless# Guide to Wireless Communications

slide6

How Cellular Telephony Works (continued)

Wireless# Guide to Wireless Communications

how cellular telephony works continued
How Cellular Telephony Works (continued)
  • Keys to cellular telephone networks (continued)
    • Transmitters and cell phones operate at low power
      • Enables the signal to stay confined to the cell
      • Signal at a specific frequency does not go far beyond the cell area
        • Same frequency can be used in other cells at the same time
        • Except in adjacent cells
  • Cell phones have special codes

Wireless# Guide to Wireless Communications

slide8

How Cellular Telephony Works (continued)

Wireless# Guide to Wireless Communications

slide9

How Cellular Telephony Works (continued)

Wireless# Guide to Wireless Communications

how cellular telephony works continued1
How Cellular Telephony Works (continued)
  • When user moves within the same cell
    • Transmitter and base station for that cell handle all of the transmissions
  • As the user moves toward the next cell
    • A handoff process occurs
  • Roaming
    • User moves from one cellular network to another

Wireless# Guide to Wireless Communications

slide11

How Cellular Telephony Works (continued)

Wireless# Guide to Wireless Communications

how cellular telephony works continued2
How Cellular Telephony Works (continued)
  • Steps to receive a call
    • Cell phone listens for the SID being transmitted by the base station on the control channel
    • Phone compares SID with its programmed SID
      • If they match, phone is in a network owned by carrier
    • If SIDs do not match, phone is roaming
    • When a call comes in, MTSO locates the phone through the registration request
    • User can move to another cell
    • Phone and transmitter can change frequencies

Wireless# Guide to Wireless Communications

slide13

How Cellular Telephony Works (continued)

Wireless# Guide to Wireless Communications

digital cellular telephony
Digital Cellular Telephony
  • Cellular telephones have been available since the early 1980s in the United States
  • Most industry experts outline several generations of cellular telephony

Wireless# Guide to Wireless Communications

first generation cellular telephony
First Generation Cellular Telephony
  • First Generation (1G)
    • Uses analog signals modulated using FM
    • Based on Advanced Mobile Phone Service (AMPS)
      • Operates in the 800-900 MHz frequency spectrum
      • Each channel is 30 KHz wide with a 45 KHz passband
      • There are 832 frequencies available
      • Uses Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA)
      • FDMA allocates a single cellular channel with two frequencies to one user at a time
  • 1G networks use circuit-switching technology

Wireless# Guide to Wireless Communications

slide16

First Generation Cellular Telephony (continued)

Wireless# Guide to Wireless Communications

first generation cellular telephony continued
First Generation Cellular Telephony (continued)
  • Circuit-switching technology
    • Makes a dedicated and direct physical connection
      • between the caller and the recipient
  • Analog signals are prone to interference
    • Do not have the same quality as digital signals

Wireless# Guide to Wireless Communications

second generation cellular telephony
Second Generation Cellular Telephony
  • Second Generation (2G)
    • Transmits data between 9.6 Kbps and 14.4 Kbps
      • In the 800 MHz and 1.9 GHz frequencies
    • 2G networks are also circuit-switching
    • 2G systems use digital transmissions
    • Digital transmission benefits
      • Uses the frequency spectrum more efficiently
      • Over long distances, the quality of the voice transmission does not degrade
      • Difficult to decode and offer better security

Wireless# Guide to Wireless Communications

second generation cellular telephony continued
Second Generation Cellular Telephony (continued)
  • 2G (continued)
    • Digital transmission benefits (continued)
      • Digital transmissions use less transmitter power
      • Enables smaller and less expensive individual receivers and transmitters
  • Multiple access technologies
    • Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA)
    • CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access)
    • Global System for Mobile communications (GSM)
      • Uses a combination of FDMA and TDMA technologies

Wireless# Guide to Wireless Communications

slide20

Second Generation Cellular Telephony (continued)

Wireless# Guide to Wireless Communications

slide21

Second Generation Cellular Telephony (continued)

Wireless# Guide to Wireless Communications

2 5 generation cellular telephony
2.5 Generation Cellular Telephony
  • 2.5 Generation (2.5G)
    • Interim step between 2G and 3G
    • Operates at a maximum speed of 384 Kbps
    • 2.5G networks are packet-switched
    • Advantages of packet switching
      • Much more efficient
        • Can handle more transmissions over a given channel
      • Permits an always-on connection

Wireless# Guide to Wireless Communications

2 5 generation cellular telephony continued
2.5 Generation Cellular Telephony (continued)
  • 2.5G network technologies
    • General Packet Radio Service (GPRS)
      • For TDMA or GSM 2G networks
      • Uses eight time slots in a 200 KHz spectrum and four different coding techniques
    • Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE)
      • Can transmit up to 384 Kbps (same as 2.0)
      • Based on a modulation technique called 8-PSK
    • CDMA2000 1xRTT
      • Operates on two 1.25 MHz-wide frequency channels
      • Supports 144 Kbps packet data transmission

Wireless# Guide to Wireless Communications

2 5 gen cellular telephony cont
2.5 Gen Cellular Telephony (cont)
  • CDMA2000 1xRTT, the core CDMA2000 wireless air interface standard, is also known as 1x, 1xRTT, and IS-2000. The designation "1x", means 1 times Radio Transmission Technology", indicates the same RF bandwidth as IS-95: a duplex pair of 1.25 MHz radio channels. This contrasts with 3xRTT, which uses channels 3 times as wide (3.75 MHz) channels. Although capable of higher data rates, most deployments are limited to a peak of 144 kbit/s. The IS-95 data link layer only provided "best effort delivery" for data and circuit switched channel for voice. 1xRTT officially qualifies as 3G technology, but it is considered by some to be a 2.5 (or sometimes a 2.75) technology. This allows it to be deployed in 2G spectrum in some countries that limit 3G systems to certain bands.

Wireless# Guide to Wireless Communications

third generation cellular telephony
Third Generation Cellular Telephony
  • Third Generation (3G)
    • Intended to be a uniform and global standard for cellular wireless communication
  • Standard data rates
    • 144 Kbps for a mobile user
    • 386 Kbps for a slowly moving user
    • 2 Mbps for a stationary user
  • 3G network technologies
    • CDMA2000 1xEVDO
      • For 2.5G CDMA2000 1xRTT networks

Wireless# Guide to Wireless Communications

third generation cellular telephony continued
Third Generation Cellular Telephony (continued)
  • 3G network technologies (continued)
    • CDMA2000 1xEVDV will be the successor of CDMA2000 1xEVDO
    • Wideband CDMA (W-CDMA)
      • For 2.5G EDGE networks
    • High-Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA)
      • Beyond W-CDMA
      • Uses a 5 MHz W-CDMA channel, variety of adaptive modulation, multiple in multiple out (MIMO) antennas, and hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ)

Wireless# Guide to Wireless Communications

see chart comparison of mobile internet access methods
See Chart:Comparison of Mobile Internet Access methods
  • Link to Table
  • Right-click link above and select “Open Hyperlink”

Wireless# Guide to Wireless Communications

slide28

Third Generation Cellular Telephony (continued)

Wireless# Guide to Wireless Communications

slide29

Third Generation Cellular Telephony (continued)

Wireless# Guide to Wireless Communications

slide30

Third Generation Cellular Telephony (continued)

Wireless# Guide to Wireless Communications

slide31

Third Generation Cellular Telephony (continued)

Wireless# Guide to Wireless Communications

client software
Client Software
  • Internet surfing or videoconferencing require client software
    • To operate on a wireless digital cellular device
  • Common types of clients
    • WAP
    • i-mode
    • Java
    • BREW

Wireless# Guide to Wireless Communications

wireless application protocol wap and wap version 2
Wireless Application Protocol (WAP and WAP Version 2)
  • Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) and WAP2
    • Provide a standard way to transmit, format, and display Internet data
      • For devices such as cell phones
  • WAP was developed in 1997
    • Enables devices to send and receive Internet text-only data
  • WAP cell phone runs a microbrowser
    • Uses Wireless Markup Language (WML) instead of HTML

Wireless# Guide to Wireless Communications

slide34

Wireless Application Protocol (WAP and WAP Version 2) (continued)

Wireless# Guide to Wireless Communications

wireless application protocol wap and wap version 2 continued
Wireless Application Protocol (WAP and WAP Version 2) (continued)
  • WAP gateway (sometimes called WAP proxy)
    • Computer running special conversion software
    • Used to translate between WML and HTML
    • Many features of HTML are not supported in WML
  • Extensible Markup Language (XML)
    • Defined by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C)
    • Uses tags to describe how an item should be displayed on the screen
  • WML document is called a deck
    • Contains one or more blocks, known as cards

Wireless# Guide to Wireless Communications

slide36

Wireless Application Protocol (WAP and WAP Version 2) (continued)

Wireless# Guide to Wireless Communications

wireless application protocol wap and wap version 2 continued1
Wireless Application Protocol (WAP and WAP Version 2) (continued)
  • WAP2 is based on XHTML (an extension of HTML version 4)
    • Displays graphics and multiple font styles on color screen equipped mobile devices
    • Includes a protocol stack that allows it to support TCP/IP directly
    • Defines a new profile, an extension of XML, specifically to support mobile devices
    • WAP2 is backward compatible with WAP version 1

Wireless# Guide to Wireless Communications

i mode
i-Mode
  • i-mode
    • Internet access system
    • Owned by the Japanese corporation NTT DoCoMo
    • Based on compact HTML(cHTML)
      • A subset of HTML designed for mobile devices
      • cHTML (compact HTML) has its own set of tags and attributes
  • i-mode users pay for the service
    • By the amount of information downloaded plus a service charge
  • WAP services are charged by the connection time

Wireless# Guide to Wireless Communications

slide39
Java
  • Java programming language
    • Developed by Sun Microsystems
    • Object-oriented language used for general-purpose business programming
      • As well as interactive Web sites
  • Java 2 Micro Edition (J2ME)
    • Subset of Java specifically developed for programming wireless devices
    • Enables a cellular phone to access remote applications and e-mail
      • As well as run programs on the cellular phone itself

Wireless# Guide to Wireless Communications

binary runtime environment for wireless brew
Binary Runtime Environment for Wireless (BREW)
  • BREW is a thin software environment
    • Very small program that resides on a wireless device
      • Capable of running applications that can be downloaded by the device on demand
    • BREW is compatible with Java, C, and C++
  • BREW efficiently uses small amount of memory
    • Occupies only a small amount of flash memory
    • Dynamically allocates RAM for applications
  • BREW can be used with other applications

Wireless# Guide to Wireless Communications

digital cellular challenges and outlook
Digital Cellular Challenges and Outlook
  • Users will benefit the most from digital cellular telephony once the industry settles on a single cellular standard

Wireless# Guide to Wireless Communications

competing technologies
Competing Technologies
  • There is no single road to 3G digital telephony
    • Europe standards
      • W-CDMA and HSDPA
    • China and South Korea standards
      • CDMA2000 1xEVDO
    • Japan standard
      • W-CDMA
    • United States standards
      • HSDPA and CDMA2000 1xEVDO

Wireless# Guide to Wireless Communications

limited spectrum
Limited Spectrum
  • Spectrum
    • Single largest factor limiting the development of 3G
  • Although 3G can operate at almost any spectrum
    • Industry tries to use the same part of the spectrum for 3G communications around the world
      • 1.710 to 1.855 GHz and 2.520 to 2.670 GHz
  • U.S. Department of Defense currently uses the 1.7 GHz band for satellite control and military purposes

Wireless# Guide to Wireless Communications

costs
Costs
  • High monthly service fees for data transmission
  • User cost for 3G pales in comparison to costs for the carriers to build entire 3G networks

Wireless# Guide to Wireless Communications

other wireless options
Other Wireless Options
  • Top speed for a 3G user is 10 Mbps downstream
    • 802.11g WLANs offer speeds of over 54 Mbps
  • Coverage area of a single WLAN is far less than a digital cellular network
    • Deploying multiple access points can create large areas of coverage
  • Higher power consumption and the large number of electronic components of 802.11g
    • Factors that have kept this technology from being implemented in cellular phone handsets

Wireless# Guide to Wireless Communications

other wireless options continued
Other Wireless Options (continued)
  • Impact of WiMAX
    • Two distinct kinds of WWAN set-up
      • 802.16-2004 and 802.16e
      • 802.16-2004 is often called 802.16d, since that was the working party that developed the standard. It is also frequently referred to as "fixed WiMAX" since it has no support for mobility.
      • 802.16e-2005 is an amendment to 802.16-2004 and is often referred to in shortened form as 802.16e. It introduced support for mobility, amongst other things and is therefore also frequently called "mobile WiMAX".
    • 802.16e WiMAX network can be overlaid on an existing cellular tower infrastructure
      • Provides mobile users with lower cost access to data at speeds equivalent to EVDO
    • 802.16-2004WiMAX
      • Provides Internet and cable TV access to rural areas and remote cities

Wireless# Guide to Wireless Communications

satellite broadband wireless
Satellite Broadband Wireless
  • Use of satellites for personal wireless communication is fairly recent
  • Satellite use falls into three broad categories
    • Satellites are used to acquire scientific data and perform research in space
    • Satellites look at Earth from space
    • Satellites include devices that are simply reflectors

Wireless# Guide to Wireless Communications

slide48

Satellite Broadband Wireless (continued)

Wireless# Guide to Wireless Communications

satellite transmissions
Satellite Transmissions
  • Satellites generally send and receive on one of four frequency bands
  • Frequency band affects the size of the antenna

Wireless# Guide to Wireless Communications

satellite transmissions continued
Satellite Transmissions (continued)

Wireless# Guide to Wireless Communications

slide51

Satellite Transmissions (continued)

Wireless# Guide to Wireless Communications

satellite transmissions continued1
Satellite Transmissions (continued)
  • Class and Type of Service
    • Satellites can provide two classes of service
      • Consumer class service
        • Shares the available bandwidth between the users
      • Business class service
        • Offers dedicated channels with dedicated bandwidth
    • Types of connectivity
      • Point-to-point, point-to-multipoint, and multipoint-to-multipoint

Wireless# Guide to Wireless Communications

slide53

Satellite Transmissions (continued)

Wireless# Guide to Wireless Communications

satellite transmissions continued2
Satellite Transmissions (continued)
  • Modulation techniques
    • Binary phase shift keying (BPSK)
    • Quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK)
    • Eight-phase shift keying (8-PSK)
    • Quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM)
  • Multiplexing techniques
    • Permanently assigned multiple access (PAMA)
    • Multi-channel per carrier (MCPC)
    • Demand assigned multiple access (DAMA)

Wireless# Guide to Wireless Communications

low earth orbit leo
Low Earth Orbit (LEO)
  • Low earth orbit (LEO) satellites
    • Circle the Earth at an altitude of 200 to 900 miles
    • Must travel at high speeds
      • So that the Earth’s gravity will not pull them back into the atmosphere
    • Area of Earth coverage (called the footprint) is small
  • LEO systems have a low latency
    • Use low-powered terrestrial devices (RF transmitters)
    • Round trip time: 20 to 40 milliseconds

Wireless# Guide to Wireless Communications

slide56

Low Earth Orbit (LEO) (continued)

Wireless# Guide to Wireless Communications

low earth orbit leo continued
Low Earth Orbit (LEO) (continued)
  • LEO satellites groups
    • Big LEO
      • Carries voice and data broadband services, such as wireless Internet access
    • Little LEO
      • Provides pager, satellite telephone, and location services

Wireless# Guide to Wireless Communications

medium earth orbit meo
Medium Earth Orbit (MEO)
  • Medium earth orbit (MEO) satellites
    • Orbit the Earth at altitudes between 1,500 and 10,000 miles
    • Some MEO satellites orbit in near-perfect circles
      • Have a constant altitude and constant speed
    • Other MEO satellites revolve in elongated orbits called highly elliptical orbits (HEOs)
  • Advantages
    • MEO can circle the Earth in up to 12 hours
    • Have a bigger Earth footprint

Wireless# Guide to Wireless Communications

slide59

Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) (continued)

Wireless# Guide to Wireless Communications

medium earth orbit meo continued
Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) (continued)
  • Disadvantage
    • Higher orbit increases the latency
    • Round trip time: 50 to 150 milliseconds
  • HEO (High EarthOrbit) satellites
    • Have a high apogee (maximum altitude) and a low perigee (minimum altitude)
    • Can provide good coverage in extreme latitudes
    • Orbits typically have a 24-hour period

Wireless# Guide to Wireless Communications

geosynchronous earth orbit geo
Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO)
  • Geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO) satellites
    • Stationed at an altitude of 22,282 miles
    • Orbit matches the rotation of the Earth
      • And moves as the Earth moves
    • Can provide continuous service to a very large footprint
      • Three GEO satellites are needed to cover the Earth
    • Have high latencies of about 250 milliseconds
    • Require high-powered terrestrial sending devices

Wireless# Guide to Wireless Communications

slide62

Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO) (continued)

Wireless# Guide to Wireless Communications

slide63

Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO) (continued)

Wireless# Guide to Wireless Communications

slide64

Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO) (continued)

Wireless# Guide to Wireless Communications

experimental technologies
Experimental Technologies
  • NASA has been experimenting with ultra-lightweight, solar-powered, high-flying aircraft since the 1990s
    • To be used in place of a satellite or ground-based antenna tower infrastructure

Wireless# Guide to Wireless Communications

satellite technology outlook
Satellite Technology Outlook
  • Satellites can provide wireless communication
    • In areas not covered by cellular or WiMAX
  • Satellites today are enabling carriers to offer
    • Internet access and voice calls to passengers and crews across large oceans
      • And in high latitudes and remote corners of the Earth
  • Can also make these services available in many other unpopulated areas

Wireless# Guide to Wireless Communications

summary
Summary
  • In cellular telephone networks, the coverage area is divided into sections called cells
  • Handoff vs. roaming
  • Cellular technology generations
    • First generation (1G)
    • Second generation (2G)
    • 2.5 generation (2.5G)
    • Third generation (3G)
  • Short Message Services (SMS)
    • Allows for the delivery of short, text-based messages

Wireless# Guide to Wireless Communications

summary continued
Summary (continued)
  • 2.5GWAP-enabled cell phones run a tiny browser program called a microbrowser
  • 3G cell phones allow Internet surfing or videoconferencing using WAP2
  • Java 2 Micro Edition (J2ME)
    • Subset of Java specifically developed for programming wireless devices
  • BREW is a runtime environment that resides on a wireless device
  • Issues preventing digital cellular acceptance include
    • Competing cellular technologies and lack of standards

Wireless# Guide to Wireless Communications

summary continued1
Summary (continued)
  • Introduction of WiMAX technologies
    • May have a significant impact on how 3G technologies are eventually employed
  • Satellites used for wireless data connectivity
    • Employ common modulation and multiplexing techniques
  • Satellite orbit types
    • LEO satellites
    • MEO satellites
    • GEO satellites

Wireless# Guide to Wireless Communications