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History. Generation 0 Charles Babbage (1792-1871) Analytical Engine purely mechanical Ada Lovelace – first programmer. Generation 1 tubes WW II ’45-’55 Aiken – Harvard von Neumann – Princeton Zuse – Germany Eckert & Mauchley – U Penn. Generation 2 transistor ’55-’65

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History
History

  • Generation 0

    • Charles Babbage (1792-1871)

    • Analytical Engine

    • purely mechanical

    • Ada Lovelace – first programmer


History

  • Generation 1

    • tubes

    • WW II

    • ’45-’55

    • Aiken – Harvard

    • von Neumann – Princeton

    • Zuse – Germany

    • Eckert & Mauchley – U Penn


History

  • Generation 2

    • transistor

    • ’55-’65

    • mainframes, punched cards, operators

    • batch systems

      • cards  1401  tape  7094  tape  1401  printer


History

  • Generation 3

    • ICs

    • ’65 – ’80

    • System/360 “family” of systems

    • Multiprogramming – multiple programs in memory at the same time sharing the CPU

    • SPOOL – simultaneous peripheral operation online

    • Timesharing – variant of multiprogramming for terminal and batch jobs


History

  • Gen 3 cont’d

    • MULTICS

      • Computer utility idea (kind of like internet servers)

      • More ambitious than hardware could support

      • MULTICS + PDP7 + Ken Thompson = Unix

      • Unix variants:

        • System V

        • BSD

      • IEEE POSIX

      • Now Linux from Linus Torvalds


History

  • Gen 4 – 1980 to present

    • VLSI

    • 8080 CP/M also Z80

    • Apple I and II

    • 8088 + MS-DOS (from Seattle Comp. Prod.)

    • Apple Lisa (Xerox Star)

    • Apple Mac

    • Windows 3.1, 95, 98, NT (designed by David Cutler from DEC VAX/VMS), 2000, XP

    • XWindows on Unix and Linux