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Introduction to AI Robotics ( Chapter 1. From Teleoperation To Autonomy ) (12-09-19). Sungmin Lee ( 이성민 ) Division of Electronic Engineering, Chonbuk National University. Intelligent Systems & Robotics Lab. overview. What Can Robots Be Used For?.

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Introduction to AI Robotics

( Chapter 1. From Teleoperation To Autonomy )


Sungmin Lee (이성민)

Division of Electronic Engineering, Chonbuk National University

Intelligent Systems & Robotics Lab.

what can robots be used for
What Can Robots Be Used For?

1) nuclear, space, military

2) service industry, agriculture

3) demining an area of land mines, urban search and rescue.

4) THE 3 D’S (dirty, dull, or dangerous.)

a brief history of robotics 1
A Brief History of Robotics(1)

Robotics has its roots in a variety of sources, including the way machines are controlled and the need to perform tasks that put human workers at risk.

In 1942, the United States embarked on a top secret project, called the Manhattan Project, to build a nuclear bomb.

Many military leaders of both sides of World War II believed the winner would be the side who could build the first nuclear device: the Allied Powers led by USA or the Axis, led by Nazi Germany.

World War II

(1939.9.1~ 1945.9.2)

a brief history of robotics 2
A Brief History of Robotics(2)

One of the first problems that the scientists and engineers encountered was handling and processing radioactive materials, including uranium and plutonium, in large quantities.

Solution 1

Solution 2


Glove box

industrial manipulators
Industrial manipulators

First industrial manipulator - Unimate

Robot arms began being introduced to industries in 1956 by Unimation.

“Armed for duty. A Unimate robot – really, just an arm- picks up and puts down parts in a General Electric factory”

agvs automated guided vehicles
AGVs(automated guided vehicles)

Mobile cart

The first AGV system was built and introduced in 1953. It was a modified towing tractor that was used to pull a trailer and follow an overhead wire in a grocery warehouse. By the late 50's and early 60's towing AGVs were in operation in many types of factories and warehouses.

a brief history of robotics 3
A Brief History of Robotics(3)

Despite the emerging Luddite effect, industrial engineers in each of the economic powers began working for a black factory in the 1980’s.A black factory is a factory that has no lights turned on because there are no workers.

But two unanticipated trends undermined industrial robots in a way that the Luddite movement could not.

First, industrial engineers did not have experience designing manufacturing plants with robots.

The second trend was the changing world economy. Customers

were demanding “mass customization.” (Mass customization is also referred to as “agile manufacturing.”)

components of a telesystem
Components of a Telesystem

Teleoperation is when a human operator TELEOPERATION controls a robot from a distance (tele means “remote”)



ways of controlling a robot
Ways of Controlling a Robot


you control the robot

you can view the robot and it’s relationship to the environment

ex. radio controlled cars, bomb robots

operator isn’t removed from scene, not very safe


you control the robot

you can only view the environment through the robot’s eyes

don’t have to figure out AI

semi- or full autonomy

you might control the robot sometimes

you can only view the environment through the robot’s eyes

ex. Sojouner with different modes

human doesn’t have to do everything


Human controls robot remotely

Hazardous materials

Search and rescue

Some planetary rovers


Feedback (video, tactile)

User interfaces (cognitive fatigue, nausea)


ex1 teleoperation systems
Ex1. Teleoperation systems


Unmanned Aerial Vehicle ( UAV )

7 second communications lag (satellite relay)

ex2 teleoperation systems
Ex2. Teleoperation systems


4 people to control it

(52-56 weeks of training)

one for flying

two for instruments

one for landing/takeoff

plus maintenance, sensor processing and routing

teleoperation best suited for
Teleoperation Best Suited For

1. The tasks are unstructured and not repetitive.

2. The task workspace cannot be engineered to permit the use of industrial manipulators.

3. Key portions of the task require dexterous manipulation, especially hand-eye coordination, but not continuously.

4. Key portions of the task require object recognition or situational awareness.

5. The needs of the display technology do not exceed the limitations of the communication link (bandwidth, time delays).

6. The availability of trained personnel is not an issue.

teleoperation problems
Teleoperation Problems

1. cognitive fatigue

2. communications bandwidth

3. communications lag

4. too many people to run one robot

teleoperation solutions
Teleoperation Solutions


  • improves human control, reduces simulator sickness and cognitive fatigue by providing sensory feedback to the point that teleoperator feels they are “present” in robot’s environment


  • Supervisory Control
    • human is involved, but routine or “safe” portions of the task are handled autonomously by the robot
    • Shared Control
      • human initiates action, interacts with remote by adding perceptual inputs or feedback, and interrupts execution as needed
    • Traded Control
      • human initiates action, does not interact
ex1 telepresence
Ex1. Telepresence

Telepresence is when humans sense that they are at a certain location, but when in fact, they are many miles away.

ex2 telepresence
Ex2. Telepresence

The TELESAR V telexistence robot avatar, is his lab’s latest masterpiece. The robot can transmit sight, hearing and even touch, so when you can’t be there, it’s the next best thing.

ex3 telepresence
Ex3. Telepresence

Films about telepresence

the seven areas of ai
The Seven Areas of AI

1. knowledge representation.

2. understanding natural language.

3. Learning.

4. planning and problem solving.

5. Inference.

6. Search.

7. Vision.


Teleoperation arose as an intermediate solution to autonomy,

but it has a number of problems : cognitive fatigue, high

communications bandwidth, short delays, and many :

one human to robot ratios.

Telepresence tries to reduce cognitive fatigue through enhanced

immersive environments

Semi-autonomy tries to reduce fatigue, bandwidth by delegating

portions of the task to robot