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Nutrition. Energy Balance Calculating BMR Anabolic Steroids. Energy. calories : Energy, fuel for the body. calories are technically a measure of heat energy. 1 calorie is the amount of energy it takes to heat 1 gram of water 1 degree Celsius
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Nutrition Energy Balance Calculating BMR Anabolic Steroids
Energy • calories: Energy, fuel for the body. calories are technically a measure of heat energy. 1 calorie is the amount of energy it takes to heat 1 gram of water 1 degree Celsius • Energy is contained within the chemical bond of food and is released when food is broken down by the body.
Energy • Three major nutrients in food: • Fat: 9 calories per gram • Carbohydrates: 4 calories per gram • Protein: 4 calories per gram
Energy Balance • The balance between food energy taken in and energy spent determines how much fat a person’s body stores in its fat tissues or how much it uses from storage.
Energy in– Energy out = Change in fat • Energy In • Food consumption (calories) • Example – an apple brings in 100 calories, a candy bar 425 calories, etc. • For every 3,500 calories you eat over the amount you spend, you store one pound of fat.
Energy in –Energy out= Change in fat • Voluntary activities – movements of the body under the conscious control of the person. • The number of calories a person uses on a voluntary basis depends on: • The number and size of the muscles that are working. (Ex. walking up a flight of steps expends more energy than picking up a pencil.) • The total weight of the body parts being moved. (The heavier the body parts, the more energy used.)
Energy in –Energy out= Change in fat • Voluntary activities – movements of the body under the conscious control of the person. • The number of calories a person uses on a voluntary basis depends on: • The length of time of exercise. (The longer the activity lasts, the more calories are used.) • The amount of effort put into the movement-the intensity of the workout. (Hard work takes more fuel.)
Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)Energy in –Energy out= Change in fat • The sum of all the energy needed to support the chemical activities of the cells and to sustain life. • Basal processes include: • Beating of the heart • Breathing • Maintenance of body temperature • Working of the nerves and glands
BMR Formula • Women: BMR = 655 • + (4.35 x weight in pounds) • + (4.7 x height in inches) • - (4.7 x age in years) • Men: BMR = 66 • + (6.23 x weight in pounds) • + (12.7 x height in inches) • - (6.8 x age in years)
Harris-Benedict Formula • To determine your total daily calorie needs, multiply your BMR by the appropriate activity factor, as follows: • If you are sedentary (little or no exercise) : • Calorie-Calculation = BMR x 1.2 • If you are lightly active (light exercise/sports 1-3 days/week) • Calorie-Calculation = BMR x 1.375 • If you are moderately active (moderate exercise/sports 3-5 days/week) : • Calorie-Calculation = BMR x 1.55 • If you are very active (hard exercise/sports 6-7 days a week) • Calorie-Calculation = BMR x 1.725 • If you are extra active (very hard exercise/sports & physical job or 2x training): • Calorie-Calculation = BMR x 1.9
Body weight, alone, says little about body fatness. A person with strong muscles and bones may not be overweight, but may seem overweight on the scale. Also, height-weight scales used for adults are useless for children and teenagers.
Methods for Measuring Body Fat % • Waist circumference -a waist measurement is used to assess where your fat is distributed. Even more important than the amount of fat is where your fat is located. Fat that is located in your abdominal area is associated with an increased risk of heart disease, high blood pressure, and diabetes. A waist circumference of 40 inches or more in men and 35 inches or more in woman is associated with significantly increased disease risk.
Methods for Measuring Body Fat % • Pinch test– a skinfold measure without the equipment to make it accurate; A very crude method using the thumb and forefinger to pinch a fold of skin at the back of the arm. The space between the fingers is measured with a ruler and if the space is over an inch it reflects obesity.
Methods for Measuring Body Fat % • Skinfold caliper– a pinching device that measures the thickness of a fold of skin on the back of the arm, below the shoulder blade, on the side of the waist, or elsewhere.
Methods for Measuring Body Fat % • Bioelectrical impedance - measures the resistance of body tissues to the flow of a small, harmless electrical signal. It predicts body fat from the strength and speed of the electrical signal sent through the body (impedance measurements) and information such as height, weight, and gender.
Methods for Measuring Body Fat % • Underwater weighing - the percent body fat is calculated from equations based on the density of the body. The density of the body is calculated by an equation that involves measuring a person suspended on a trapeze in the air and then weighing the person under water. (most accurate method)
“Standards” (body fat varies considerably for men and women, for age and culture, for activity level, etc.) Body Fat Guidelines from the American Council on Exercise • CLASSIFICATIONMALESFEMALES • Essential Fat 2-4 % 10-12 % • Athletes 6-13 % 14-20 % • Fitness 14-17 % 21-24 % • Acceptable 18-25 % 25-31 %
“Standards” (body fat varies considerably for men and women, for age and culture, for activity level, etc.) Body Fat Guidelines from the American Dietetics Association • CLASSIFICATIONMALESFEMALES • Normal 10-20 % 15-25 % • Overweight 20.1-24.4 % 25.1-29.9 % • Obese Over 25 % Over 30 %
“Standards” (body fat varies considerably for men and women, for age and culture, for activity level, etc.) Age-Related Healthy Body Fat Guidelines • AGEMALESFEMALES • 18-39 years 8-19 % 21-32 % • 40-59 years 11-21 % 23-33 % • 60-79 years 13-24 % 24-35 %
Ways to estimate Ideal Body Weight • BMI– Body Mass Index is a relationship between weight and height that is associated with body fat and health risk. Weight is converted to kilograms, height is converted to meters and then squared. These numbers are then put into an equation to determine BMI. BMI=kg/m2. It is easy to look up BMI on readily available BMI charts.
Reading 24-36 Washing dishes 51-76 Shopping 53-80 Golf – cart 78-117 Volleyball – competitive 99-148 Badminton 102-153 Swimming – moderate 138-206 Golf - carry clubs 138-206 Shovel Snow 138-206 Horseback riding – trotting 147-220 Aerobics - high impact 159-238 Jogging 159-238 Backpacking 159-238 Hockey 183-274 Basketball 1/2 court 186-279 Frisbee, Ultimate 192-288 Soccer competitive 228-342 Calories Burned in 30 Minutes100lbs-150lbs
Calories Burned Calculator • http://www.internetfitness.com/calculators/calburncalc.htm
Unsound Weight Loss Practices • Fasting– when no food or too little carbohydrate is eaten, the body uses up its glycogen and then breaks down its own protein tissues to supply the brain with glucose. The body slows its rate of energy use.
Unsound Weight Loss Practices • Diuretics– these water pills do nothing to bring about fat loss. • Diet pills– amphetamines and other pills reduce appetite by triggering the stress response. They are often addictive and cause additional health problems. • Health spa regimens– you cannot jiggle or melt away pounds on special machines.
Unsound Weight Loss Practices • Muscle stimulators, passive exercise machines– these reduce body measurements by making muscles tighter for an hour or so, not by reducing their fat content. • Hormones – powerful body chemicals that are useless and hazardous as weight-loss aids.
Unsound Weight Loss Practices • Surgery– such as stomach stapling to treat severe weight problems can have dangerous side-effects and can lead to digestive tract damage.
Weight Loss Fads & Sales Gimmicks • Don’t trust any weight-loss method that: • Promises rapid weight loss • Uses diets that are extremely low in calories (less than 1,000 calories per day) • Uses diets too low in carbohydrates • Make people dependent upon special products • Do not teach permanent, realistic lifestyle changes, including regular exercise and behavior modification
Weight Loss Fads & Sales Gimmicks • Don’t trust any weight-loss method that: • Misrepresent salespeople as “counselors” • Require large sums of money, require long-term and expensive contracts • Fail to inform clients of the risks associated with weight loss in general
Smart weight loss strategies • Diet (Never consume less than 1000 calories per day) • Exercise (Exercising in the morning and late afternoon helps boost metabolism; see daily guidelines for daily exercise recommendations) • Behavior change (Change bad habits such as eating late at night or eating in front of the TV) • Hydration strategies (Try drinking a glass of water before a meal…)
Smart weight gain strategies • Exercise - continue physical activity since it is essential for good health unless body weight is so low as to be life-threatening • Eat more - add 700-800 extra calories of nutritious foods a day to achieve a gain of 1 – 1½ pounds per week. • Use more high-calorie foods – milkshakes instead of milk, whole milk instead of non-fat milk, peanut butter instead of lean meat, etc. • Eat more often
Weight control • People who maintain weight take responsibility for their weight. They do not place the responsibility on programs, professionals, pills, or potions. (Outside advice can help, but the weight belongs to the person.) • People who maintain weight have confidence that they can - they believe in themselves. • People who maintain weight do not let normal lapses bother them.
Serving Size • Breads, Cereals, Rice, Pasta, and other Grains Group • 1 slice bread or 1/2 bagel the size of a hockey puck. • 1/2 cup cooked rice equals a cupcake wrapper. • 1/2 cup pasta equals an ice cream scoop. • Fruit and Vegetable Groups • One fruit and vegetable serving is equal to one piece the size of a tennis ball or 1/2 cup the size of a light bulb.
Serving Size • Meat, Chicken, Fish, Dry Beans and Peas, Eggs, and Nuts Group • 3 ounces lean meat, chicken, or fish measures up to a deck of cards or a check book. • Dairy Group • 1 ounce cheese equals about 3 dice. • Fats, Oils, and Sweets Group • Use sparingly. For a teaspoon of fat, look to the tip of your thumb.
Strategies to control the amount of fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, trans-fats and sodium in your diet • Choose foods that have been grilled, broiled, roasted, boiled, baked or microwaved, rather than fried foods. • Cut down on the use of gravy • Choose lean meats with no visible fat • Use cooking spray instead of butter or margarine • Reduce meat servings by half and eat more grains, beans, and vegetables.
Strategies to control the amount of fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, trans-fats and sodium in your diet • Trim all the fat you can see from the meat on your plate. • Use canned tuna packed in water not oil. • Remove the skin from chicken or turkey before eating. • Use low-fat or nonfat dairy products. • Use oil-free salad dressings, reduced-calorie mayonnaise, and diet margarine.
Strategies to control the amount of fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, trans-fats and sodium in your diet • Use less salt on food • Avoid processed foods • Read the nutrition facts labels on food • Snack on fruits and vegetables which are low in sodium
Factors that influence BMR Genetics. Some people are born with faster metabolisms; some with slower metabolisms. Gender. Men have a greater muscle mass and a lower body fat percentage. This means they have a higher basal metabolic rate. Age. BMR reduces with age. After 20 years, it drops about 2%, per decade. Weight. The heavier your weight, the higher your BMR. Example: the metabolic rate of obese women is 25 percent higher than the metabolic rate of thin women.
More BMR Factors Body Fat Percentage. The lower your body fat percentage, the higher your BMR. The lower body fat percentage in the male body is one reason why men generally have a 10-15% faster BMR than women. Diet. Starvation or serious abrupt calorie-reduction can dramatically reduce BMR by up to 30 percent. Restrictive low-calorie weight loss diets may cause your BMR to drop as much as 20%.
What are anabolic steroids? • They are synthetic substances related to the male sex hormones, called androgens. • They have a number of physiological effects, most notably an anabolic effect that promotes the growth of skeletal muscle and androgenic effects that foster the development of male sexual characteristics.
Anabolic Steroids • Anabolic steroids are legally available only by prescription in the United States. Doctors use these drugs to treat delayed puberty, impotence, and body wasting in patients with AIDS and other diseases. • Abused steroids most often are obtained from underground laboratories, smuggled, or illegally diverted. • The use of corticosteroids for medicinal purposes.
Anabolic Steroid Users • Steroid abuse is higher among males than females but is growing most rapidly among young women. • Abuse of anabolic steroids is motivated in most cases by a desire to build muscles, reduce body fat, and improve sports performance. Abuse is estimated to be very high among competitive bodybuilders and may also be widespread among other athletes.
How are anabolic steroids used? • Anabolic steroids are taken orally as tablets or capsules, by injection into muscles, or as gels or creams that are rubbed into the skin. • Doses taken by abusers can be up to 100 times greater than doses used for treating medical conditions.
How are anabolic steroids used? • Anabolic steroids often are taken in combination in a practice called "stacking," in which the abuser mixes oral and/or injectable types of anabolic steroids. • Steroid abusers often also "pyramid" stacked compounds in cycles of 6 to 12 weeks, meaning that they gradually increase doses then slowly decrease them to zero.
How are anabolic steroids used? • The belief that these practices produce bigger muscles and allow the body to adjust to and recuperate from high doses of steroids has not been substantiated scientifically.
Potential health risks associated with anabolic steroid abuse • Hormonal system disruptions - reduced sperm production, shrinking of the testicles, impotence, and irreversible breast enlargement in boys and men. Decreased body fat and breast size, deepening of the voice, growth of excessive body hair, loss of scalp hair, and clitoral enlargement in girls and women.
Potential health risks associated with anabolic steroid abuse • Musculoskeletal system effects - premature and permanent termination of growth among adolescents of both sexes. • Cardiovascular diseases - heart attacks and strokes. • Liver diseases - potentially fatal cysts and cancer. • Skin diseases - acne and cysts.
Potential health risks associated with anabolic steroid abuse • Infections - in injecting steroid abusers, HIV/AIDS, hepatitis B and C, and infective endocarditis (a potentially fatal inflammation of the inner lining of the heart). • Behavioral effects - increased aggressive behavior, particularly when high doses are taken (roid rage). Depression, mood swings, fatigue, restlessness, loss of appetite, and reduced sex drive when steroid abuse is stopped.