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Synthesis of 4-Alkoxy-8-hydroxyquinolines Juha P. Heiskanen, Walaa A. E. Omar, Mari K. Ylikunnari, Kirsi M. Haavisto, Maria J. Juan, and Osmo E. O. Hormi* J. Org. Chem. 2007 , 72 , 920-922.

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Synthesis of 4-Alkoxy-8-hydroxyquinolinesJuha P. Heiskanen, Walaa A. E. Omar, Mari K. Ylikunnari, Kirsi M. Haavisto, Maria J. Juan, and Osmo E. O. Hormi*J. Org. Chem. 2007, 72, 920-922.

Quinolines with a hydroxyl group at the 8-position and an alkoxy group at the 4-position are rare compounds. In this paper the synthesis of five 4-alkoxy-8-hydroxyquinolines is reported. The key reaction in the synthetic route was a selective protection of the hydroxyl group at C-atom 8 in 4,8-dihydroxyquinoline with a tosyl group and the hydrolytic removal of the protective group after the alkylation. The tosyl group was stable during the alkylations with various alkylating agents in the presence of sodium hydride.

(81 words)

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Phosphine-Free Palladium-Catalyzed C-H Bond Arylation of Free (N-H)-Indoles and PyrrolesXiang Wang, Denis V. Gribkov, and Dalibor Sames*modified from: J. Org. Chem. 2007, 72, 1476-1479

This paper describes a phosphine-free palladium-catalyzed method for direct C-arylation of free (N-H)-indoles and pyrroles with iodo- and bromoarene donors. In the course of this study, a profound halide effect was uncovered, affecting both the efficiency and regioselectivity of indole arylation.

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Phosphine-Free Palladium-Catalyzed C-H Bond Arylation of Free (N-H)-Indoles and PyrrolesXiang Wang, Denis V. Gribkov, and Dalibor Sames*modified from: J. Org. Chem. 2007, 72, 1476-1479

This paper describes a phosphine-free palladium-catalyzed method for direct C-arylation of free (N-H)-indoles and pyrroles with iodo- and bromoarene donors. Employing commercially available materials, this new and operationally simple procedure provides a rapid entry to a wide range of C-arylated (N-H) indoles including derivatives of tryptamine. In the course of this study, a profound halide effect was uncovered, affecting both the efficiency and regioselectivity of indole arylation.

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Efficient Methodology for Selective Alkylation of Hydrazine DerivativesAleksei Bredihhin, Ulrich M. Groth, and Uno Mäeorg*modified from: Org. Lett. 2007, 9, 1097-1099.

Formation and use of a nitrogen dianion for selective hydrazine alkylation is reported, based on pKa differences of phenyl- or BOC-substituted hydrazine nitrogens. The scope and limitations of a new method were demonstrated. The reaction rate increases in the following order of leaving groups: chloride, bromide, and iodide. Reaction times varied from 2 h to several days. The novel method provides fast and easy access to mono- or disubstituted hydrazines, which are widely used as drugs, pesticides, and precursors for a variety of compounds in organic synthesis.

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Efficient Methodology for Selective Alkylation of Hydrazine DerivativesAleksei Bredihhin, Ulrich M. Groth, and Uno Mäeorg*modified from: Org. Lett. 2007, 9, 1097-1099.

Formation and use of a nitrogen dianion for selective hydrazine alkylation is reported, based on pKa differences of phenyl- or BOC-substituted hydrazine nitrogens. The scope and limitations of a new method were demonstrated. The reaction rate increases in the following order of leaving groups: chloride, bromide, and iodide. Reaction times varied from 2 h to several days. The novel method provides fast and easy access to mono- or disubstituted hydrazines, which are widely used as drugs, pesticides, and precursors for a variety of compounds in organic synthesis.

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A Prospective Study of Holiday Weight Gain

Jack A. Yanovski, M.D., Ph.D., Susan Z. Yanovski, M.D., Kara N. Sovik, B.S., Tuc T. Nguyen, M.S., Patrick M. O'Neil, Ph.D., and Nancy G. Sebring, M.Ed., R.D.

N. Engl. J. Med. 2000, 342, 861-867.

ABSTRACT

Background It is commonly asserted that the average American gains 5 lb (2.3 kg) or more over the holiday period between Thanksgiving and New Year's Day, yet few data support this statement.

Methods To estimate actual holiday-related weight variation, we measured body weight in a convenience sample of 195 adults. The subjects were weighed four times at intervals of six to eight weeks, so that weight change was determined for three periods: preholiday (from late September or early October to mid-November), holiday (from mid-November to early or mid-January), and postholiday (from early or mid-January to late February or early March). A final measurement of body weight was obtained in 165 subjects the following September or October. Data on other vital signs and self-reported health measures were obtained from the patients in order to mask the main outcome of interest.

Results The mean (±SD) weight increased significantly during the holiday period (gain, 0.37±1.52 kg; P<0.001), but not during the preholiday period (gain, 0.18±1.49 kg; P=0.09) or the postholiday period (loss, 0.07±1.14 kg; P=0.36). As compared with their weight in late September or early October, the study subjects had an average net weight gain of 0.48±2.22 kg in late February or March (P=0.003). Between February or March and the next September or early October, there was no significant additional change in weight (gain, 0.21 kg±2.3 kg; P=0.13) for the 165 participants who returned for follow-up.

Conclusions The average holiday weight gain is less than commonly asserted. Since this gain is not reversed during the spring or summer months, the net 0.48-kg weight gain in the fall and winter probably contributes to the increase in body weight that frequently occurs during adulthood.

(279 words)

commonly seen incorrect sentence construction
Commonly seen, incorrect sentence construction

Alykylation with bromopropane allowed to isolate amine 2

 …allowed isolation of amine 2

 ….led to amine 2.

 ….gave amine 2.

NMR allowed identifying the structure of the compound.

better  NMR allowed identification of the compound’s structure.

even better still  The compound’s structure was identified by NMR