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TITTLE. An Assessment of Contribution of Local Community to Wildlife Conservation ( A case study of Mwada and Sangaiwe villages around Tarangire National Park) Prepared by: Nsabo M.Kisiro. INTRODUCTION:. Background information.

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    1. TITTLE An Assessment of Contribution of Local Community to Wildlife Conservation ( A case study of Mwada and Sangaiwe villages around Tarangire National Park) Prepared by: Nsabo M.Kisiro

    2. INTRODUCTION: • Background information. • Natural resources management in Africa dates back during pre colonial era when the ancestors interacted freely and life in harmony with the enormous natural resources especially wildlife which they managed sustain ably. • Wildlife provided them with food and constituted a vital source of their livelihood (Lewis and Carter, 1993 in Masuruli, 2008).

    3. Background information cont... During the colonial era African especially in rural community come to be alienated from their natural resources, including wildlife. As authority moved to create areas for protection of wildlife, many rural communities were evacuated from their native areas of settlement to new areas, cutting their linkages with wildlife which was an important source of their livelihood These top – down approach on wildlife management brought a lot of commotions between protected areas and rural communities adjacent. The protected areas become unmanageable and also resulted in loss of human life and natural resources degradation and depreciation occurred (Masuruli, 2008). .

    4. Background information cont... • Tanzania like other developing countries has adopted the change of wildlife management from top down to participatory approach. • This stated early 1980s when pilot project for community – based conservation Services (CBC) were established in Selous Game Reserve and Community Conservation Services (CCS) initiatives in Serengeti National Park in late 1980s. • Local community must participate in the management of natural resources and any benefits accrued from good management of natural resources must be shared equally.

    5. PROBLEM STATEMENT • Many literatures documented much on the contribution of wildlife inside and outside protected areas to local community developments and improved livelihood, • But there is less, if any existing information on the contribution of local community on wildlife conservation, therefore, since there is little existing information there is important need to study the contribution of local community to the successful conservation of wildlife resources.

    6. JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDY: • This research will provides necessary information on the contribution of local community on wildlife conservation to Tarangire national park authority and others institutions (NGOs or Government organization) which are dealing with wildlife conservation so that they will gain effective support of the community to ensure the existence of wildlife in protected areas.

    7. Research Objectives: • The overall objective of this study is to assess the contribution of local community to wildlife Conservation in Mwada and Sangaiwe villages around Tarangire National Park. SPECIFIC OBJECTIVE • To assess the involvement of local community in wildlife conservation. • To assess the attitude of local community towards wildlife conservation. • To suggest possible measures to improve contribution of local communities to wildlife conservation.

    8. HYPOTHESIS: • Ho: There is no a significant contribution of local communities on wildlife Conservation. • Ha:There is a significant contribution of local communities on Wildlife Conservation.

    9. LITERATURE REVIWE CONT.. • The UN Conference on Environment and Development in 1992 catalyzed the interest in the contribution of indigenous knowledge to a better understanding of sustainable development. • UNCED highlighted the urgent need for developing mechanisms to protect the earth's biological diversity through local knowledge. • Many of the documents signed at UNCED reflected the need to conserve the knowledge of the environment that is being lost in communities.

    10. LITERATURE REVIWE CONT.. • WILDLIFEPOLICY • State that village communities living adjacent to protected areas, wetland or in Wildlife corridors will be encouraged to establish Wildlife Management Areas (WMAs) in order to secure habitat for wildlife and halt wetlands degradation. • The role of public is to support the government efforts in the conservation, management, development and sustainable utilization of wildlife and wetlands resources. Local communities living on the village lands with viable populations of wildlife have a role of protecting and benefiting from wildlife and wetland resources, setting aside wildlife conservation areas on their land (MNTR, 2007).

    11. LITERATURE REVIWE CONT.. • PARTICIPATION OF LOCA PEOPLE Participation has been viewed by planners and policy makers as a means to achieve goals but not as a goal in its own right. • The concept of community conservation has its relevance on the Consultative, Functional, Interactive and self mobilizations or empowerment. Hughes, (2000) calls up for management based on partnership where all stakeholders are involved in the process and where local community interests are a key concern.

    12. RESEARCH METHODOLOGIES study area description • Mwada and Sangaiwe are Located in the northern Tanzania in the Manyara Region these villages are two communities under studies adjacent to Tarangire National Park. These communities are situated between 03º 51′S and 35º 19′ E at an altitude of between 998 and 1,012m asl. • The Villages share the border With Tarangire National Park in the East and the Great North Road in the west. In the North it borders Lake Burungi (Ash Soda) and in the south its shares border with Sarame village and Sarame Hill. It is administratively in Mwada ward, Mbugwe Division- Babati District (Kaswamila, 2006).

    13. The map of Tarangire National Park indicating the study area

    14. METHODS Selection of the Study area. Sampling Design Techniques. Random sampling will be used to decide a representative sample by using the random numbers where by 2%- 5% of households will be selected in each village for the reasons that the method ensures that any individual element in the population will have an equal chance of being selected and being representative, hence minimizing sampling biases

    15. METHODS CONT.. Data Collection Techniques • Key informants • Questionnaire • Focus groups • Direct Observation • Literature search.

    16. Material to be used: • Scientific calculator for choosing random number. • Books for reference. • Vehicle for transport. • Questionnaire sheets. • Digital Camera. • Field note books and pens for recording and keeping the information.

    17. Data Analysis Techniques • The Qualitative and Quantitative data will be analyzed by using descriptive statistics and analysis. • Descriptive statistics involved tables, charts, graphs, percentages, and mean will be used to present the data. The use of excel computer software and spreadsheet will be used in data analysis. • The Chi Square Statistic test will be used to test the hypothesis: X² = Σ (Observed – Expected) ² Expected

    18. Data Analysis Techniques cont.. • Calculate the chi square statistic x2 by completing the following steps: • For each observed number in the table subtract the corresponding expected number (O — E). • Square the difference [(O —E) 2]. • Divide the squares obtained for each cell in the table by the expected number for that cell [(O - E) 2 / E]. • Sum all the values for (O - E) 2 / E. This is the chi square statistic.

    19. Activities Time Plan:

    20. Budget of the Research:

    21. REFERENCES • Barrow, E. & Murphree, M.W. (2001)Community Conservation from Concepts to Practice. In: African wildlife and livelihoods; The promise and performance of community conservation. • Borrini F. G. (1997). Beyond Fences Seeking Social Sustainability in Conservation, • IUCN, Gland. • Byers A. B. (1996). Understanding and Influencing Behaviors in Conservation and • Natural Resources Management. African Biodiversity Series, No. 4.Washington, • D.C: Biodersity Support Program. • Currey J. (2005). Rural resources and Local livelihoods in Africa. Edited by Katherine • Homewood, Professor of Anthropology University college, London. • Gamassa M.D (2000). Principles in Practice: Staff Observation of Conservation Project • in Africa. Washington, D.C.: Biodersity Support Program. • Gibson C.C. (1999): Politician and Poachers. • Hughes, L. (2000) The Protected Area Landscape Approach; A New Paradigm For African Wildlife Management. In; African Wildlife Management in The New Millennium Conference Proceedings Vol.2; College of African Wildlife Management-Mweka.

    22. REFERENCES • IIED, (1994). Whose Eden? An Overview of Community Approaches to Wildlife • Management. Overseas Development Administration of the British Government. • IUCN, (1980) World Conservation Strategy. Living Resources for Sustainable Development. IUCN, Gland – Switzerland. • IUCN, (2004): Park in transition: biodiversity, rural development and bottom line/edited • by Brian Child. • Kajuni R. A. (2007). Tarangire National Park. General Management Plan/ • Environmental Impact Assessment; Tanzania National Parks: Department • of planning and Development Projects. • Kaswamila, A.L. (2006) Evaluation of Land Use Plans in Protected Area Bio-Networks in North-Eastern Tanzania. A Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement of The University of Greenwich for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy. • Masuruli M. B (2008). Training manual - Community Conservation. (Unpublished) • United Republic of Tanzania, (2005a) Learning about Livelihoods; Lessons for Poverty Reduction in Tanzania. Vice Presidents office. Dar es Salaam University Press. • Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism, (2007) The Wildlife Policy of Tanzania; United Republic of Tanzania. The Government Printer, Dar es Salaam-Tanzania.

    23. QUSTIONNAIRES TO LOCAL COMMUNITIES: GENERAL INFORMATION • Village Name……...................................................................... • Name of household…………. Age……….. …………………. • Sex ……………..… Tribe…… …Religion ………………… • Marital Status………………Occupation……………………..… • Ward ……………………….District …………………..Region …………………. • 2) How long have you been in this Village? …………………………. • 3) Have you migrated to this Village? .............................. • 4) If yes where did you came from? ……………………………………… • 5) What is the contribution made by local community to conserve wildlife? • 6) What are the constraints/limitations you’re facing in contributing to wildlife conservation? • 7) Do you have any by-laws governing natural resources around your village? Yes/No. • 8) If yes, what are they? • 9) What are the institutions dealing with management of natural resources around your • Village?

    24. QUSTIONNAIRES TO LOCAL COMMUNITIES: GENERAL INFORMATION cont… • 10) How are the institutions involved in management of natural resources around your Village? • 11) How do you participate in natural resource management around your village? A). Decision making (b). Utilization (c). Enacted by-laws (d). Others • 12). Are there any community conservation initiatives around your village? Yes/No. • 13). If yes, what are they? • 14). How are you being involved in community conservation around your village? • 15). Are all villages being involved in community conservation issues in your village? • 16).What is your opinions about the wildlife conservation around your village? • 17). Do you support the conservation of wildlife in your area? • a) Yes (b) No • 18). If no why? • 19). what do you suggest to improve your contribution in wildlife conservation?

    25. QUESTIONNAIRE FOR TARANGIRE STAFF. Name of the interview……...................................................................... Age……….. …………………. Sex ……………..… Tribe…… …Religion ………………… Marital Status……………… Department ………………………. 1.How long have you being working here? 2.Do you know the villages around your protected area? 3.What is the important of involving local communities in protection of natural resource in your protected area? 4.What approaches do your park using in ensuring the local communities involvement in wildlife conservation? 5.How do you rate the involvement of local communities in wildlife conservation in your area? a) Fully involved b) Partially involved c) No involvement

    26. QUESTIONNAIRE FOR TARANGIRE STAFF Cont... 6. How do you rate the contribution of communities in wildlife conservation around your area? a) High b) Moderate c) Low d) No 7. What benefits do you get from communities around Tarangire National park in conserving wildlife resources? 8. What are the successes that the park achieved as the result of involving communities in wildlife conservation? 9. What are difficulties that the local communities are facing in contributing in conserving wildlife resources around your park? 10. What do your suggest to improve the contribution of local community in conservation of wildlife resources around your park?

    27. END OF MY PRESENTATION • THANK YOU FOR LISTENING