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Skills and Techniques. Skill Learning. Methods of Practice. There are four main methods of practice that you need to know for physical education: GRADUAL BUILD UP WHOLE PART WHOLE PASSIVE/ACTIVE PRACTICES REPETIITIVE PRACTICES. Gradual Build Up.

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skills and techniques

Skills and Techniques

Skill Learning

methods of practice
Methods of Practice
  • There are four main methods of practice that you need to know for physical education:
  • GRADUAL BUILD UP
  • WHOLE PART WHOLE
  • PASSIVE/ACTIVE PRACTICES
  • REPETIITIVE PRACTICES
gradual build up
Gradual Build Up

Gradual build up is a useful practice method for learning complex skills. You learn the skill bit by bit. You build the skill up in stages. Often used when the skill is too difficult or dangerous to try.

Gradual build up is a useful practice method as it allows you to:

  • Make practices more demanding in small steps
  • Develop confidence
  • Make practices challenging but achievable
  • Gear practices to your stage of learning
gradual build up1
Gradual Build Up

The best example for using the gradual build up method for an individual activity is the flight dive.

Describe four different stages of building up to a flight dive in swimming

gradual build up2
Gradual Build Up

The best example for using the gradual build up method for an team activity is the Lay Up

Describe four different stages of building up to a Lay Up in Basketball

answers
Answers
  • Skill – Diving
  • Stage 1 – Sit on the edge of the pool with feet in the channel. Lean forward with head between the arms, with hands pointing towards the water. Topple forward into the water.
  • Stage 2 – One knee and one foot on edge of the pool. . Lean forward with head between the arms, with hands pointing towards the water. Topple forward into the water.
  • Stage 3 – Crouch down with both feet on the edge of the pool. Lean forward with head between the arms, with hands pointing towards the water. Topple forward into the water.
  • Stage 4 - Stand with both feet on the edge of the pool. Lean forward with head

between the arms, with hands pointing towards the water. Topple forward and straighten legs to dive into the water.

answer
Answer
  • Team Activity –Basketball
  • Skill – Right-handed Lay-Up
  • Stage 1 – Mark the take-off position on the ground and repeatedly perform a standing shot in off the back board.
  • Stage 2 – Mark the take-off position on the ground and repeatedly perform a jumping shot in off the back board.
  • Stage 3 – Take two steps back from the basket. Bounce the ball in front of you and catch it and take two steps, right foot then left foot, taking off from the take-off position on the left foot, before jumping and stretching up to lay the ball in off the back-board.
  • Stage 4 – Dribble the ball into the basket, to perform a full lay-up, jumping up off the left foot from the marked take-off position.
whole part whole
Whole Part Whole

Whole part whole is often used by performers who already have some experience of the activity. It works best when you can perform a version of the whole skill already.

E.g. Front Crawl - Swimming

Whole: Try the whole stroke i.e. using both arms and legs

Part: With a float in hands, practise legs only to improve leg kick

Whole: Return to the whole stroke again to see if stroke has improved.

passive active practices
PASSIVE/ACTIVE PRACTICES

These are often useful to practise with a partner as they can vary the degree of opposition required to help you improve. E.g. Basketball– lay up shot

1. Solo practice ensuring foot pattern and ball placement is correct.

2. With a partner – receive pass from partner and perform lay-up shot.

3. Partner passes and then uses passive defence to mark you

4. Partner passes and then becomes an active defender who is trying to get ball.

learning skills tasks
Learning Skills Tasks

1. Choose one method of practice from list A and one from list B. Explain why you would use these methods of practice.(4)

List A List B

Shadow practice Whole-part-whole

Small sided games Conditioned games

2. Choose two activities and describe, in detail, how you used these methods of practice to develop a skill. (Give specific details of a practice that you have used). (4)

learning skills tasks1
Learning Skills Tasks

3. Gradual build up is one method of learning and developing skills.

i) What is meant by gradual build up? /2

ii) Explain why you would use this method /2

4. Select two different skills where you used gradual build up. Choose an individual activity, a skill or technique. Describe how you learned to perform this skill or technique.

Firstly I, /1 Then I, /1 Finally I, /1

5. Choose a Team activity, a skill or technique. Describe how you learned to perform this skill or technique.

Firstly I, /1 Then I, /1 Finally I, /1

simple skills

e.g.

Set Shot

Few Sub-routines

Few judgments

to be made

Physically

EASY/SIMPLE SKILLS

Undemanding

Simple order of

movements

Little co-ordination

Easy Environment e.g.

needed

One movement at a

Indoors

time

Simple Skills
simple skills1
Simple Skills

HIGH

SERVE

CHEST

PASS

PUSH

PASS

SIMPLE

SKILLS

SET

SHOT

HEADING

HEAD-

STAND

complex skills

e.g.

Lay-up in

Basketball

Physically

Demanding

Many Sub-routines

Many judgements

COMPLEX

to be made

SKILLS

Co-ordination is

vital

Many movements at

the same time

Complex Skills
butterfly stroke
High jump

Basketball

lay-up

Volley

Goal Keeper save

Butterfly stroke

Complex Skills

learning skills exam questions
Learning Skills Exam Questions
  • Whole – part – whole and gradual build-up are two different methods of learning and developing skills. Explain why you used each method. (2)x2
  • Choose an activity. Choose a skill/technique that could be improved using whole/part/whole. Describe what you did to improve this skill/technique using whole/part/whole. (2)

ii) Now choose a different method of developing skills. (1)

iii) Describe how you used this method to improve a skill/technique in an activity of your choice. (2)

iv) Why was this an appropriate way to develop this skill/technique. (1)